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49 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
A family tree of disease
A Pedigree
How do diseases run through family?
The bad gene allele is passed on
"Road Map" of each chromosome with signposts every 100,000 nucleotides
DNA markers
DNA marker to screen people for the disease allele
Genetic Testing
Used to cut a gene or genes out of the DNA of one organism and put them into the DNA of another organism
Genetic Engineering
What is the goal of gene therapy?
To go into a human's cell and fix their bad genes
How is gene therapy accomplished?
Scientists make a good copy of the gene and put it into a vector that will carry it into a person's cell.
What are some problems gene therapy has come across its progress?
* The vectors dont always go to the right cells
* The gene may insert into a different gene - causing more problems
* May cause health problems
What happens with SCIDS?
They are born without an immune system
What are ethical concerns involving gene therapy?
* Very expensive
* Could be a problem that won't show up until several generations
* Alter benign characteristics
The act of deliberately choosing which individuals will breed and which will not based upon whether they exhibit desired characteristics
Selective breeding
How is selective breeding and genetic engineering different?
Selective breeding is limited by the variation that exists within itself
How is selective breeding and genetic engineering similar?
Both are creating changes to make it better
What are some benefits of genetically engineered plants?
* A way for growing crops in parts of the world that arent usually suitable
* Fewer pesticides
* During drought, people will still have food
The process by which one cell doubles all of its contents and then divides to make two cells that are exactly like the first one
Step of Mitosis when Chromosomes in a diploid cell are copied
Step of Mitosis when each chromosome holds onto its copy at the centromere
Step of Mitosis when the chromosomes line up on the center line of the cell
Step of Mitosis when the chromosomes and the cell splits so that one copy of each chromosome ends up in a separate cell
the normal number of chromosomes in animal or plant cells (2 of each chromosome)
number of chromosomes in a gamete (half the number of chromosomes)
during meiosis the chromosomes will find their counterpart to form a pair
homologogous pairs of chromosomes
pairs of chromosomes wrap around each other and exchange parts of dna with the other
crossing over
The process of starting with a diploid cell and ending with 4 haploid cells
What are the 3 ways that meiosis provides the variation for evolution
* Mutations during DNA replication
* Crossing over
* Random Assortment
Any trait that aids in the survival and reproduction of a population in a particular environment
Thought species came about via static model
Thought that traits were aquired through use
God created all the species, but they change over time, just not into new species
Natural Theology
Thought species came about via branched descent
Darwin's hypothesis that the environment acts upon variations among populations and those individuals that survive will pass on their genetics
Natural Selection
Give an example of mimicry
The Viceroy butterfly through evolution mimics the poisonious Monarch butterfly
Give an example of industrial melanism
Moths in england
Give an example of homologies
Human arms, cheetah legs, whale flippers
Give an example of vestigal structures
Tailbone in humans
What is vestigal structures
Structures that related species share but are no longer functional in one or more of the species
Different species may have completely different structures for performing the same function in both species
Convergent Evolution
similarities in development among related species
comparitive embryology
A group of individuals of the same species living at the same time and within a particular region where they are capable of breeding with one another
A group of individuals capable of breeding with each other to produce viable and fertile offspring
This occurs when populations of the same species are separated by some physical barrier that prevents them from interbreeding
Geographic isolation
Any biological, behavioral, geographical barrier that prevents the interbreeding of populations of the same species
Reproductive isolation
Occured 16 billion years ago
Big Bang Theory
Occured 4.5 billion years ago
The earth formed - primordial soup
3.5 Billion Years ago
First forms of life occured on earth
1.5 billion years ago
the oceans formed and the first eukaryotic organisms evolved
200 million years ago
Pangaea split into Laurasia in the north and Gondwanaland in the south
100 million years ago
Laurasia split into North America
80-45 million years ago
Gondwanaland split into south america, africa, australia and antarctica