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219 Cards in this Set

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Which of the following metabolic processes results in the production of ATP in the absence of oxygen?

a)the mannose-6-phosphate cycle
b)glycolysis
c)photosynthesis
d)the Krebs (citric acid) cycle
e)oxidative phosphorylation
b)glycolysis
The high degree of molecular organization in living cells is:

a)stored as heat energy.
b)achieved by the synthesis of carbon dioxide in green plants.
c)attained and maintained as a consequence of the violation of the laws of physics.
d)attained and maintained only as long as energy fuels the organization.
e)greater in animals than it is in plants.
d)attained and maintained only as long as energy fuels the organization.
During C4 photosynthesis:

a)plants are able to reduce water loss by producing more rubisco.
b)plants are able to produce sugars only during the daytime.
c)plants are able to continue producing sugars even when they must close their stomata to reduce water loss during hot days.
d)plants utilize less ATP when producing sugar.
e)plants are able to generate water molecules to cool their leaves.
c)plants are able to continue producing sugars even when they must close their stomata to reduce water loss during hot days.
The C4 mechanism of carbon fixation is an advantage for plants that live in:

a) the shade of other plants.
b) swamps or bogs.
c) tropical climates.
d) ponds or other bodies of fresh water.
e) hot, dry climates.
e) hot, dry climates.
What is the function of the pigment molecules in photosynthesis that are not at the center of a photosystem?

a) They move the electrons down the electron-transport chain.
b) They split water and release oxygen to the reaction-center chlorophyll.
c) They synthesize ADP from ATP and a phosphate group.
d) They concentrate the photons within the stroma.
e) They gather photons and transfer energy to the reaction-center chlorophyll.
e) They gather photons and transfer energy to the reaction-center chlorophyll.
What is the source of the electrons that replace those lost by chlorophyll a in the photosystems?

a) water
b) chlorophyll b
c) carbon dioxide
d) oxygen gas
e) carotenoids
a) water
Photosynthesizing plants rely on water:

a) to replace electrons that are excited by light energy and passed from molecule to molecule down an electron transport chain.
b) as high energy storage in its bonding.
c) to concentrate the beams of light hitting a leaf, focusing them on the reaction center.
d) to replenish oxygen molecules that are lost during photosynthesis.
e) to provide the protons necessary to produce chlorophyll.
a) to replace electrons that are excited by light energy and passed from molecule to molecule down an electron transport chain.
s produced in the mitochondria by a series of biochemical reactions. In what order do these reactions occur?

a) glycolysis; the electron transport chain; the Krebs (citric acid) cycle
b) glycolysis; the Krebs (citric acid) cycle; the electron transport chain
c) the Krebs (citric acid) cycle; the electron transport chain; glycolysis
d) the Krebs (citric acid) cycle; glycolysis; the electron transport chain
e) the electron transport chain; glycolysis; the Krebs (citric acid) cycle
b) glycolysis; the Krebs (citric acid) cycle; the electron transport chain
Which of the following is NOT a form of kinetic energy?

a) a covalent bond linking phosphate molecules
b) a chameleon tongue catching a bug
c) flowing water turning a turbine
d) a pitcher throwing a baseball
e) a swimmer doing the breast stroke
a) a covalent bond linking phosphate molecules
Which of the following does NOT occur during the Calvin cycle?

a) oxidation of NADPH
b) consumption of carbon dioxide
c) consumption of ATP
d) carbon fixation
e) sunlight splitting water
e) sunlight splitting water
A molecule of chlorophyll increases in potential energy:

a) when one of its electrons is boosted to a higher-energy excited state after absorbing a photon of light.
b) when it binds to a photon.
c) when it loses an electron.
d) None of the above. The potential energy of a molecule cannot change.
a) when one of its electrons is boosted to a higher-energy excited state after absorbing a photon of light.
Where does the Calvin cycle take place?

a) around the chlorophyll molecule
b) in the stroma of the chloroplast
c) in the Hobbesian membrane
d) in the thylakoid membrane
e) along the cellular membrane
b) in the stroma of the chloroplast
In harvesting the chemical energy of the molecules in food:

a) all macromolecules must first be converted into glucose.
b) all macromolecules must first be converted into proteins or free-form amino acids.
c) all macromolecules must first be converted into glucose or another simple sugar.
d) organisms can utilize sugars, lipids, and proteins.
e) all macromolecules must first be converted into their hydrocarbon chains.
d) organisms can utilize sugars, lipids, and proteins.
What is the first step in CAM photosynthesis?

a) Plants open their stomata at any time to take in carbon dioxide.
b) Plants open their stomata at night to take in carbon dioxide.
c) Plants sequester carbon dioxide in bundle-sheath cells and convert it to phosoglyceric acid.
d) Plants close their stomata to raise internal temperatures.
e) Plants open their stomata to raise internal temperatures.
b) Plants open their stomata at night to take in carbon dioxide.
The carbon dioxide needed for photosynthesis enters the plant through the:

a) stomata.
b) thylakoid.
c) root hairs.
d) roots.
e) stroma.
a) stomata.
In studying the way energy is handled in the universe, one scientist summarized: "Not only can't you get something for nothing, but you can't even break even!" Which of the following do these two statements best summarize?

a) the placebo effect
b) kinetic energy
c) the first and second laws of thermodynamics
d) potential energy
e) biofuels
c) the first and second laws of thermodynamics
Energy used in cellular respiration can originate from:

a) carbohydrates only.
b) carbohydrates and lipids only.
c) carbohydrates, proteins, and fats.
d) proteins only.
e) fats only.
c) carbohydrates, proteins, and fats.
The most abundant protein in the world is the enzyme that initiates the fixation of carbon in the Calvin cycle. This enzyme is called:

a) rubisco.
b) ADP-synthase.
c) ribulose biphosphate.
d) crassulacean acid.
e) glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate.
a) rubisco.
Potential energy:

a) is energy that changes into chemical energy only with very high temperatures
b) transfers motion to matter.
c) is contained in matter placed in certain positions or arrangements.
d) contains less energy than kinetic energy.
e) is kinetic energy that has not yet been turned to heat.
c) is contained in matter placed in certain positions or arrangements.
Carotenoids:

a) are the organelles in a leaf cell in which respiration occurs.
b) are the roots of all photosynthesizing organisms
c) are the stacks of thylakoid membranes in a chloroplast.
d) are accessory pigments in chloroplasts that protect the chlorophyll by absorbing excessive light energy.
e) are primary pigments in certain plants and algae chloroplasts that fix carbon in place of chlorophyll.
d) are accessory pigments in chloroplasts that protect the chlorophyll by absorbing excessive light energy.
Photons excite electrons in chlorophyll. These electrons are then trapped by the primary electron acceptor. How does the photosystem replace the trapped electrons?

a) These electrons are not replaced. A molecule of chlorophyll in a photosystem is used up with each electron transferred.
b) The photosystem replaces its light-excited electrons by extracting electrons from carbon dioxide.
c) The photosystem replaces its light-excited electrons by extracting electrons from oxygen.
d) The photosystem replaces its light-excited electrons by extracting electrons from water.
e) The photosystem replaces its light-excited electrons by extracting electrons from the Calvin cycle.
d) The photosystem replaces its light-excited electrons by extracting electrons from water.
An inherited disease results from abnormal mitochondria passed from mother to child. Using your knowledge of mitochondria's function within human cells, which of the following is the most likely description of the symptoms of this disease?

a) inability to absorb iron, resulting in extreme anemia
b) fragile bones and arthritis
c) color blindness
d) extreme sensitivity to mutagens such as x-rays and sunlight, increasing the chance of cancer
e) extreme muscle weakness
e) extreme muscle weakness
How many turns of the Krebs cycle (also called the citric acid cycle) are needed to fully breakdown the energy in one glucose molecule?

a) 2 turns
b) 3 turns
c) 1.5 turns
d) 4 turns
e) 1 turn
a) 2 turns
A green plant can carry out photosynthesis if given nothing more than:

a) water and light.
b) water, light, and carbon dioxide.
c) carbon dioxide.
d) water, light, and oxygen.
e) oxygen and carbon dioxide.
b) water, light, and carbon dioxide.
In photosynthesis, both the first and the second photosystems:

a) generate NADP.
b) require H2O.
c) generate PGAL.
d) generate energy-storage molecules.
e) generate oxygen.
d) generate energy-storage molecules.
Although the reactions of the Calvin cycle do not depend directly on light, they do not usually occur at night. Why?

a) Carbon dioxide concentrations decrease at night.
b) At night, plants have a negative water balance with the soil, due to reduced evaporation.
c) The Calvin cycle depends on products of the light reactions which cannot occur at night.
d) Plants must open their stomata to restore their water balance each night.
e) It is usually too cold at night for these reactions to take place
c) The Calvin cycle depends on products of the light reactions which cannot occur at night.
What are the resulting products of the splitting of water in photosynthesis?

a) electrons and hydrogen ions only
b) electrons, oxygen, and hydroxide ions
c) electrons, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen ions
d) electrons, oxygen, and photons
e) electrons, oxygen, and hydrogen ions
e) electrons, oxygen, and hydrogen ions
All alcoholic beverages are produced as the result of:

a) cellular respiration by yeast occurring in the absence of oxygen.
b) cellular respiration by bacteria occurring in the absence of free hydrogens.
c) cellular respiration by yeast occurring in the absence of free electrons.
d) cellular respiration occurring in the absence of sugar.
e) cellular respiration by bacteria occurring in the absence of oxygen.
a) cellular respiration by yeast occurring in the absence of oxygen.
During photosynthesis, visible light has enough energy to:

a) suppress electron excitement.
b) reflect light in the red spectrum.
c) excite electrons.
d) split a water molecule into hydrogen and oxygen.
e) convert ADP into ATP.
c) excite electrons
Fermentation reactions generally occur under conditions of:

a) low oxygen concentrations.
b) low glucose levels.
c) high oxygen concentrations.
d) high temperatures.
e) low water concentrations.
a) low oxygen concentrations.
Why are leaves green?

a) Chlorophyll molecules mainly absorb light in the blue-violet and red-orange part of the electromagnetic spectrum. Chlorophyll does not absorb much green light, which is reflected to our eyes.
b) Chlorophyll molecules mainly absorb light in the ultraviolet and red-orange part of the electromagnetic spectrum. Chlorophyll does not absorb much green light, which is reflected to our eyes.
c) Chlorophyll molecules mainly absorb light in the green part of the electromagnetic spectrum.
d) Chlorophyll molecules mainly absorb light in the blue-violet and infrared part of the electromagnetic spectrum. Chlorophyll does not absorb much green light, which is reflected to our eyes.
e) Chlorophyll molecules mainly absorb light in the ultraviolet and infrared part of the electromagnetic spectrum. Chlorophyll does not absorb much green light, which is reflected to our eyes.
a) Chlorophyll molecules mainly absorb light in the blue-violet and red-orange part of the electromagnetic spectrum. Chlorophyll does not absorb much green light, which is reflected to our eyes.
Cellular respiration is the process by which:

a) ATP molecules are converted into water and sugar.
b) oxygen is produced during protein synthesis.
c) light energy is converted into kinetic energy.
d) energy from the chemical bonds of food molecules is captured by an organism.
e) oxygen is used to transport chemical energy throughout the body
d) energy from the chemical bonds of food molecules is captured by an organism.
Desert plants reduce water loss by ____________.

a) closing stomatas
b) rotating leaves
c) wilting
d) opening stomatas
e) generating heat
a) closing stomatas
The energy transformation pathways of cellular respiration and photosynthesis are related in which of the following ways?

a) Photosynthesis is the energy-releasing stage and cellular respiration is the energy-acquiring stage.
b) Photosynthesis is the energy-acquiring stage and cellular respiration is the energy-releasing stage.
c) Photosynthesis produces glucose and oxygen while cellular respiration produces carbon dioxide and water.
d) Photosynthesis requires carbon dioxide and water while cellular respiration requires oxygen and glucose.
e) b), c), and d) are correct.
e) b), c), and d) are correct.
Which of the following processes does NOT take place in the cytosol in eukaryotic cells?


a) synthesis of proteins for delivery elsewhere in the body
b) synthesis of proteins that remain in the cell
c) glycolysis
d) conversion of pyruvate into acetyl CoA
e) All of the above take place in the cytosol.
d) conversion of pyruvate into acetyl CoA
Which of the following products of the light reactions of photosynthesis are later employed in the Calvin cycle?

a) NADPH and ATP
b) ADP and RuBP
c) glucose and carbon dioxide
d) free oxygen and water
e) electrons and H+
a) NADPH and ATP
Which by-product of photosynthesis was important in altering the atmosphere of the earth so that aerobic organisms could evolve?

a) nitrogen
b) fossil fuels
c) air
d) carbon dioxide
e) oxygen
e) oxygen
In glycolysis, one molecule of glucose containing 6 carbons is converted to two molecules of ________ containing 3 carbons each. This reaction also yields two molecules of _______ and two molecules of _______.

a) Galactose; H2O; ATP
b) Pyruvate; ATP; NADH
c) Lactic acid; O2; one phosphate
d) Sucrose; lactic acid; FADH
e) Acetyl-CoA; ADP; Pi
b) Pyruvate; ATP; NADH
Chlorophyll a and b are green-colored molecules. What color(s) of light do they reflect?

a) only violet
b) only orange and red
c) only green
d) only red and blue
e) only blue and green
c) only green
A cyclist rides her bike up a very steep hill. Of the following choices, which statement properly describes this example in energetic terms?

a) Potential energy in food is converted to kinetic energy as the cyclist's muscles push her up the hill.
b) Kinetic energy is highest when the cyclist is at the crest of the hill.
c) The cyclist produces the most potential energy as she cruises down the hill's steep slope.
d) Potential energy is greatest when the cyclist is at the top of the hill.
e) Both a) and d) are correct.
e) Both a) and d) are correct.
Energized electrons from the water-splitting photosystem pass down an electron-transport chain to the ___________-producing photosystem.

a) ATP
b) NADP+
c) NADPH
d) ADP
e) carbohydrate
c) NADPH
Three different metabolic pathways are responsible for the production of ATP. What are they?

a) glycolysis, oxidation, and the Calvin cycle reactions
b) glycolysis, the reactions on the electron transport chain, and the Krebs (citric acid) cycle
c) glycolysis, catabolism, and fermentation
d) hydrolysis, active transport, and the light reactions
e) None of the above is correct.
b) glycolysis, the reactions on the electron transport chain, and the Krebs (citric acid) cycle
Photosynthesis is the process by which plants, some bacteria, and some protistans, use the energy from sunlight to produce sugar, which _______________ converts to ATP, the "fuel" used by all living things.

a) photorespiration
b) glycolysis
c) cellular respiration
d) phosphorylation
e) eutrophication
c) cellular respiration
Animal fats and plant oils are sometimes used as sources of fuel for automobile engines. How is energy harvested from these molecules?

a) They contain hydrocarbon tails linked by disulfide bridges which, when broken, release chemical energy.
b) They contain long carbon tails and each atom has unpaired electrons that are released upon exposure to extreme heat and pressure.
c) They contain long hydrophobic regions that, when mixed with water, generate explosions.
d) They contain multiple phosphate groups that each release energy when "liberated" from the molecule chemically.
e) They contain long chains of hydrocarbons that, when broken, release the energy stored in the bonds linking the atoms together.
e) They contain long chains of hydrocarbons that, when broken, release the energy stored in the bonds linking the atoms together.
Both a plant's stoma and its stroma are important in photosynthesis. What's the difference between stoma and stroma?

a) Stoma is the singular of stomata, the fluid that fills the inner space of a chloroplast, while stroma are the gas exchange pores in the leaf of the plant.
b) Stoma is the singular of stomata, the gas exchange pores in the leaf of the plant, while stroma is the disk-like membranous sac in which the light-reactions of photosynthesis take place.
c) Stoma refers to the non-sexual cells of a plant, while stroma is the fluid that fills the inner space of a chloroplast.
d) Stoma is the fluid that fills the inner space of a chloroplast, while stroma is a stack of disk-like thylakoids.
e) Stoma is the singular of stomata, the gas exchange pores in the leaf of the plant, while stroma is the fluid that fills the inner space of a chloroplast.
e) Stoma is the singular of stomata, the gas exchange pores in the leaf of the plant, while stroma is the fluid that fills the inner space of a chloroplast.
The first cells evolved in an atmosphere that lacked free _____________. Their metabolism resulted in the accumulation of ________________ in the atmosphere.

a) oxygen; methane
b) carbon dioxide; oxygen
c) carbon dioxide; carbon dioxide
d) oxygen; carbon dioxide
e) oxygen; oxygen
d) oxygen; carbon dioxide
Which one of the following statements best represents the relationship between respiration and photosynthesis?

a) Respiration occurs only in animals and photosynthesis occurs only in plants.
b) Photosynthesis reverses the biochemical pathways of respiration.
c) Respiration stores energy in complex organic molecules, while photosynthesis releases it.
d) Photosynthesis stores energy as glucose, while respiration stores it as fatty acids.
e) Photosynthesis stores energy in complex organic molecules, while respiration releases it.
e) Photosynthesis stores energy in complex organic molecules, while respiration releases it.
Photosystems:

a) are arrangements of chemicals found in the epidrmal cells.
b) are arrangements of thylakoid membranes within the plant cell wall.
c) are arrangements of ATP-synthase molecules within chloroplasts.
d) are arrangements of light-catching pigments within chloroplasts.
e) are the wavelengths of light that reach the earth from the sun.
d) are arrangements of light-catching pigments within chloroplasts.
A molecule of chlorophyll increases in potential energy:

a) only in the presence of oxygen.
b) when it loses an electron.
c) when one of its electrons is boosted to a higher-energy excited state upon being struck by a photon of light.
d) when it binds to a photon.
e) None of the above; the potential energy of a molecule cannot change.
c) when one of its electrons is boosted to a higher-energy excited state upon being struck by a photon of light.
During electron transport in photosynthesis, the inner compartment of the thylakoid membrane becomes:

a) more acidic than the stroma.
b) less acidic than the stroma.
c) a site for the synthesis of glucose molecules.
d) a site for the synthesis of NADPH+.
e) a storage site for electrons.
a) more acidic than the stroma.
Which of the following does NOT occur as a direct result of a photon hitting a chlorophyll molecule?

a) breaking of the water molecule
b) excitation of an electron
c) production of NADPH and H+
d) a release of heat
e) fluorescence
c) production of NADPH and H+
With regards to special mechanisms of photosynthesis in hot or dry climates, ________ photosynthesis separates carbon dioxide capture and the Calvin cycle physically while _________ photosynthesis separates carbon dioxide capture and the Calvin Cycle in time.

a) C3, CAM
b) C4, CAM
c) C3,C4
d) CAM, C4
e) CAM, C3
b) C4, CAM
Cellular respiration is an efficient process that captures around 35% of the energy in glucose. From one molecule of glucose, it yields:

a) exactly 686 ATP.
b) approximately 36 ATP.
c) approximately 12 ATP.
d) approximately 6 ATP (one for every carbon molecule in glucose).
e) no ATP molecules.
b) approximately 36 ATP.
Plants that carry out the Calvin cycle during the day when the stomata are closed and fix CO2 into organic acids at night when the stomata are open are called:

a) chemoautotrophs.
b) C4 plants.
c) CAM plants.
d) green algae.
e) C3 plants.
c) CAM plants
In photosynthesis, as electrons pass from carrier to carrier in redox reactions, hydrogen ions removed from ___________ are deposited in ______________.

a) photosystem I; photosystem II
b) the stroma; the thylakoid space
c) photosystem II; photosystem I
d) the thylakoid space; the stroma
e) the thylakoid space; the Calvin cycle
b) the stroma; the thylakoid space
During fermentation, yeast cells convert pyruvate to ethanol and CO2. Fermentation also occurs in human muscle cells when oxygen is depleted. In the case of muscle cells, what are the byproduct(s) of the fermentation of pyruvate?

a) sugars and proteins
b) ethanol and CO2
c) ATP and NADH
d) lactic acid
e) oxygen and ATP
d) lactic acid
To synthesize 1 glucose molecule, the Calvin cycle uses _______ molecules of CO2, _______ molecules of ATP, and ________ molecules of NADPH.

a) 12, 18, 12
b) 6, 12, 18
c) 6, 12, 12
d) 18, 48, 36
e) 6, 18, 12
e) 6, 18, 12
Phosphorus is an important nutrient for plants and animals because it is a component of:

a) cell membranes.
b) DNA, RNA, and ATP.
c) amino acids and ATP.
d) DNA, RNA, and amino acids.
e) polysaccharides and amino acids.
d) DNA, RNA, and amino acids.
Light-absorbing pigments that are not at the reaction center of a photosystem:

a) are free floating in the stroma.
b) are all constructed from chlorophyll.
c) are identical in all plant species.
d) enable photosynthesis to occur in the dark for a short period of time.
e) increase the amount of the visible light spectrum that can be harnessed for photosynthesis.
e) increase the amount of the visible light spectrum that can be harnessed for photosynthesis.
In the Krebs cycle, the pieces of the starting glucose molecule (now pyruvate) are completely broken apart to produce carbon dioxide. What happened to all the energy that was contained in the bonds of the original glucose molecule?



a) It was lost as heat.
b) It was transferred into NADH and FADH2 and some ATP.
c) It was used to turn oxygen gas into water.
d) It is still in the bonds of pyruvate.
e) It was all used in the Krebs cycle to make ATP.
b) It was transferred into NADH and FADH2 and some ATP
Mitochondria have a "bag within a bag" structure. This is necessary to:

a) create two distinct regions with a concentration differential, a form of potential energy.
b) segregate the most toxic digestive enzymes from molecules of ATP and NADP.
c) allow light-reactive accessory pigments to be embedded within the membranes.
d) keep molecules of ADP close in proximity to molecules of ATP-synthase.
e) None of the above is correct
Mitochondria have a "bag within a bag" structure. This is necessary to:

a) create two distinct regions with a concentration differential, a form of potential energy.
The three steps, in order, of the Calvin Cycle are:

a) fixation of CO2, sugar creation, regeneration.
b) regeneration, fixation of NADP+, sugar creation.
c) ATP production, the electron transport chain, and fixation of NADPH.
d) the splitting of water, the electron transport chain, the passing of electrons to NADP+.
e) sugar creation, regeneration, ATP production.
a) fixation of CO2, sugar creation, regeneration.
Which of the following sequences accurately represents the flow of electrons during photosynthesis?

a) H2O ? NADPH ? Calvin cycle
b) NADPH ? chlorophyll ? Calvin cycle
c) H2O ? ATP ? Calvin cycle
d) NADPH ? O2 ? CO2
e) NADPH ? Calvin cycle ? O2
a) H2O ? NADPH ? Calvin cycle
The light reactions of photosynthesis supply the Calvin cycle with:

a) CO2 and ATP.
b) electrons from the glucose molecule.
c) ATP and NADPH & H+.
d) light energy.
e) sugar and O2.
c) ATP and NADPH & H+.
Each ATP molecule is composed of three separate subunits. Which of the following is NOT a proper description of one of these subunits?

a) a ribose
b) a three phosphate group
c) three carbon-nitrogen rings
d) an adenine
e) a five-carbon sugar
c) three carbon-nitrogen rings
cyclist rides her bike up a very steep hill. Pick from the following choices the one that properly describes this example in energetic terms.

a) Potential energy in food is converted to kinetic energy as muscles push the cyclist up the hill.
b) The cyclist produces the most potential energy as she cruises down the hill's steep slope.
c) Potential energy is highest when the cyclist just begins to ascend the hill.
d) Gravity provides a source of potential energy.
e) Both a) and d) are correct.
e) Both a) and d) are correct.
What are the two major sources of electrons needed to drive the proton-pumping channels in chemiosmosis?

a) In only photosynthetic organisms light energy excites electrons to higher energy levels and these are channeled to proton pumps.
b) In all organisms, high-energy electrons are obtained through the breaking of chemical bonds and are carried to the proton pump by coenzymes.
c) In only nonphotosynthetic organisms, high-energy electrons are obtained through the breaking of chemical bonds and are carried to the proton pump by coenzymes.
d) Both a) and c) are correct.
e) Both a) and b) are correct.
e) Both a) and b) are correct.
Which of the following statements about glycolysis is FALSE?

a) It results in the oxidation of glucose.
b) It occurs in animals but not plants.
c) It occurs outside of the mitochondria.
d) It leads to the formation of pyruvate.
e) It does not require oxygen
b) It occurs in animals but not plants.
All of the following statements regarding C4 plants are correct EXCEPT:

a) Rubisco is no longer necessary to make glucose.
b) They require more ATP to produce glucose than C3 plants.
c) C4 plants may expand their ranges with global warming.
d) They resemble CAM plants in that they keep their stomata closed during the day.
e) C4 plants grow better than C3 plants under low CO2 conditions.
a) Rubisco is no longer necessary to make glucose.
Biologically speaking, a pigment:

a) is a molecule that releases oxygen.
b) is a molecule that absorbs carbon dioxide.
c) is a cell that absorbs a photon.
d) is a molecule that absorbs a photon.
e) is a cell that gains electrons.
d) is a molecule that absorbs a photon.
The word anabolism refers to constructive, build-up, or synthesis reactions while the word catabolism refers to destructive, breakdown, or digestive reactions. What does it mean to say that in a cell, catabolism fuels anabolism?

a) Plants don't need to perform catabolic reactions since they make ATP directly from sunlight.
b) Cellular respiration (catabolism) forms the ATP that is used to power anabolic reactions.
c) Photosynthesis produces fuel molecules that power cellular respiration.
d) All molecules made in a cell must be broken down first before they can be remade.
e) Digesting food gives predators the ability to hunt more food.
b) Cellular respiration (catabolism) forms the ATP that is used to power anabolic reactions.
Which of the following statements most accurately depicts the relationship between the light reactions and the Calvin cycle in photosynthesis?

a) The light reactions provide the Calvin cycle with oxygen for electron flow, and the Calvin cycle provides the light reactions with water to split.
b) The light reactions supply the Calvin cycle with CO2 to produce sugars, and the Calvin cycle supplies the light reactions with sugars to produce ATP.
c) The Calvin cycle supplies ADP, NADP+, and a phosphate group to the light reactions, and the light reactions return ATP and NADPH to the Calvin cycle.
d) The light reactions provide ATP and NADPH to the carbon fixation step of the Calvin cycle, and the Calvin cycle provides water and electrons to the light reactions.
e) The Calvin cycle supplies ATP and NADPH to the light reactions, and the light reactions return ADP, NADP+, and a phosphate group to the Calvin cycle.
c) The Calvin cycle supplies ADP, NADP+, and a phosphate group to the light reactions, and the light reactions return ATP and NADPH to the Calvin cycle.
Where does the Krebs (citric acid) cycle occur in eukaryotic cells?

a) the inner mitochondrial membrane
b) the Golgi apparatus
c) the chloroplasts
d) the outer mitochondrial membrane
e) the mitochondrial matrix
e) the mitochondrial matrix
The leaves of plants can be thought of as "eating" sunlight. From an energetic perspective this makes sense because:

a) both light energy and food energy can be converted to kinetic energy without the loss of heat.
b) the carbon-oxygen bonds within a photon of light release energy when broken by the enzymes in chloroplasts.
c) the carbon-hydrogen bonds within a photon of light release energy when broken by the enzymes in chloroplasts.
d) light energy, like the chemical energy released when the bonds of food molecules are broken, is a type of kinetic energy.
e) photons are linked together by hydrogen bonds which release energy when striking the surface of a leaf.
d) light energy, like the chemical energy released when the bonds of food molecules are broken, is a type of kinetic energy
The electron-transport chains of chloroplasts convey electrons to the ___________-producing photosystem, while at the same time providing energy for the synthesis of _________.

a) water-splitting; glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate
b) NADPH; ATP
c) water-splitting; oxygen
d) ATP; NADPH
e) water-splitting; ATP
b) NADPH; ATP
Which of the following energy-generating processes is the only one that occurs in all living organisms:

a) the Krebs cycle.
b) photophosphorylation.
c) electron transformer system.
d) glycolysis.
e) None of the above. There are no energy-generating processes that occur in all living organisms.
d) glycolysis.
In your body, when energy is released from the breakdown of a molecule such as glucose:

a) molecules of ATP are required to capture the heat generated by the reaction.
b) some of it may be harnessed by building the unstable high-energy bonds that attach phosphate groups to ADP.
c) all of the energy is lost as heat.
d) adenosine diphosphate is created.
e) adenosine monophosphate is created.
b) some of it may be harnessed by building the unstable high-energy bonds that attach phosphate groups to ADP.
Fill in the blanks. CAM plants close stomata when ________ are _______ and __________ is ________.

a) temperatures, low, humidity, low
b) temperatures, high, humidity, low
c) temperatures, constant, humidity, high
d) temperatures, low, humidity, high
e) temperatures, high, humidity, high
b) temperatures, high, humidity, low
Which of the following is FALSE?

a) The thylakoid is the location of the "photo" reaction where sunlight is converted to chemical energy.
b) Chlorophyll is found embedded in the thylakoid membranes.
c) Chloroplasts, and leaves in turn, are green because chloroplasts have chlorophyll in them.
d) The thylakoid membrane lies outside of the stroma.
e) Sugar is synthesized from carbon dioxide in the stroma.
d) The thylakoid membrane lies outside of the stroma.
During the Krebs cycle:

a) high-energy electron carriers pass their energy to molecules of sugar which store them as potential energy.
b) the products of glycolysis are converted into acetyl-CoA.
c) cellular respiration can continue even in the absence of oxygen.
d) the products of glycolysis are further broken down, generating additional ATP and the high-energy electron carrier NADH.
e) the products of glycolysis are further broken down, generating additional ATP and acetyl-CoA.
d) the products of glycolysis are further broken down, generating additional ATP and the high-energy electron carrier NADH.
A pigment that absorbs all wavelengths of visible light appears:

a) yellow.
b) black.
c) green.
d) white.
e) There are no pigments that absorb all wavelengths of visible light.
b) black.
When a photon strikes a molecule, the photon may

a) bounce off the molecule.
b) be oxidized by an electrom from the valence shell of the molecule.
c) be absorbed by the molecule.
d) a) and c) are correct
e) a) and b) are correct
d) a) and c) are correct
e most important role played by chlorophyll during photosynthesis is to:

a) capture electrons that can, in turn, be used by carotenoids.
b) convert the kinetic energy of sunlight into chemical energy.
c) turn into a molecule of ATP when sunlight strikes it.
d) protect the more delicate carotenoid pigments from getting too much sunlight.
e) keep plants green-colored.
b) convert the kinetic energy of sunlight into chemical energy.
The phosphate groups in ATP:

a) release energy when separated from the rest of the molecule.
b) are positively charged.
c) hold a small amount of energy compared to the bonds in glucose
d) are ionically bonded to each other.
e) All of the above are correct.
a) release energy when separated from the rest of the molecule.
How many rotations of the Calvin cycle are required for the production of one glucose molecule?

a) 2
b) 3
c) 4
d) 6
e) 12
d) 6
During cellular respiration, most of the energy contained within the bonds of food molecules is captured in:

a) the Krebs cycle and electron transport chain.
b) digestion.
c) the conversion of the kinetic energy of food into the potential energy of ATP.
d) glycolysis.
e) None of the above; energy is lost, not gained, during cellular respiration.
a) the Krebs cycle and electron transport chain
The electrons at the very end of both photosystems are eventually picked up by an electron carrier to become:

a) O2.
b) H2O.
c) sugar.
d) ATP.
e) NADPH.
e) NADPH.
Which wavelengths are absorbed by chloroplasts during photosynthesis?

a) green
b) yellow
c) orange
d) All of the above are correct.
e) Only b) and c) are correct.
e) Only b) and c) are correct.
A molecule of glucose sugar is used by the cells of your body to make about 34-36 ATP. This means that:

a) glucose carries at least 30-40 times the energy of an ATP molecule.
b) organisms that cannot use glucose, like some bacteria, don't make ATP.
c) the bond between ADP and the last P in ATP is a low energy bond.
d) glucose is a relatively energy poor molecule compared to ATP.
e) ATP can be used over and over again without being used up
a) glucose carries at least 30-40 times the energy of an ATP molecule.
What happens to the pyruvate molecules produced through glycolysis?

a) In the presence of oxygen, pyruvate is oxidized to acetyl-CoA and enters the Krebs cycle (also known as the citric acid cycle).
b) In the absence of oxygen, pyruvate is reduced through fermentation.
c) In the presence of oxygen, pyruvate is reduced through fermentaion.
d) In the absence of oxygen, pyruvate is oxidized to acetyl-CoA and enters the Krebs cycle (also known as the citric acid cycle).
e) Both answers a) and b) are correct.
e) Both answers a) and b) are correct.
If ATP is being generated in the cytosol, which of the following processes is responsible?

a) alcohol fermentation
b) glycolysis
c) lactate fermentation
d) Krebs cycle (citric acid cycle)
e) oxidative phosphorylation
b) glycolysis
Aerobic bacteria:

a) lack mitochondria.
b) keep their respiratory enzymes in their nucleus.
c) have mitochondria and undergo respiration in the same manner as fungi.
d) Both b) and c) are correct.
e) Both a) and b) are correct.
a) lack mitochondria.
Chlorophyll b and the carotenoids are important as receptors of light energy because they:

a) can respond to infra-red and ultra-violet light.
b) respond to wavelengths different from the wavelengths that chlorophyll a responds to.
c) can absorb green and yellow light.
d) transform this energy into chemical energy.
e) have their own photosystems.
b) respond to wavelengths different from the wavelengths that chlorophyll a responds to
Which of the following statements about the light reactions of photosynthesis are correct?

a) The energy of the sun is captured as potential energy.
b) Pigments absorb light energy, which excites electrons.
c) Carbon dioxide splits, providing a source of electrons.
d) Only a) and c) are correct.
e) Only a) and b) are all correct.
e) Only a) and b) are all correct.
A green automobile hood exposed to sunlight will produce far more heat than a green leaf exposed to the same amount of sunlight. Why is this?

a) The automobile hood has no mechanism for capturing the energy of its excited electrons, so it releases that energy as heat as the electrons fall back to their ground state; a leaf contains primary electron receptors, which will capture the energy and put it to use in making ADP and NADP+.
b) The green color of the automobile hood is not the result of a pigment, while the green color of the leaf is the result of the chlorophyll pigment.
c) The automobile hood has no mechanism for capturing the energy of its excited electrons, so it releases that energy as heat as the electrons fall back to their ground state; a leaf contains primary electron receptors, which will capture the energy and put it to use in making ATP and NADPH.
d) The automobile hood absorbs heat from other sources, such as the engine and the pavement, while the leaf is cooled by the shade of other leaves.
e) The electrons in the pigment of the automobile hood have no mechanism for reaching an excited state, so all of the heat from the sun will be absorbed; in the leaf, the chlorophyll pigment provides a locus for excitation of electrons by light.
The automobile hood has no mechanism for capturing the energy of its excited electrons, so it releases that energy as heat as the electrons fall back to their ground state; a leaf contains primary electron receptors, which will capture the energy and put it to use in making ATP and NADPH.
The mitochondrial matrix:

a) is a highly basic place due to high concentration of OH- molecules pumped there.
b) is the site of both photosynthesis and cellular respiration in plant cells.
c) contains a similar mixture of enzymes as a lysosome.
d) is the site of glycolysis.
e) None of the above is correct.
e) None of the above is correct.
Which is NOT true about glycolysis?

a) NAD+ picks up pyruvate at the end, carrying it to the Krebs cycle
b) Glycolysis has a "preparatory phase" and a "payoff phase"
c) A single glucose molecule is broken down by glycolysis to produce two pyruvate molecules
d) Two NAD+ become two NADH in glycolysis
e) A single glucose molecule produces 5 net ATP in glycolysis
a) NAD+ picks up pyruvate at the end, carrying it to the Krebs cycle
NADH:

a) becomes NADPH when reduced.
b) is the reduced form of NAD+.
c) has three 5-carbon ribose sugars.
d) catalyzes the dark reactions of photosynthesis.
e) is a form of nucleotide used to store energy.
b) is the reduced form of NAD+.
Which of the following correctly orders the events of the eukaryotic cell cycle?

a) Gap 1, DNA synthesis, Gap 2, mitosis, cytokinesis
b) Gap 1, Gap 2, mitosis, DNA synthesis, cytokinesis
c) DNA synthesis, mitosis, cytokinesis, Gap 1, Gap 2
d) cytokinesis, mitosis, DNA synthesis, Gap 1, Gap 2
e) mitosis, Gap 1, Gap 2, cytokinesis, DNA synthesis
a) Gap 1, DNA synthesis, Gap 2, mitosis, cytokinesis
All of the following are cells that undergo mitosis, EXCEPT:

a) skin cells.
b) stomach cells.
c) sperm cells.
d) muscle cells.
e) yeast.
c) sperm cells.
Mendel's Law of Segregation has its physical basis in which of the following phases of the cell cycle?

a) the orientation of homologous chromosome pairs in metaphase of mitosis
b) the separation of homologous chromosome pairs in anaphase I of meiosis
c) the separation of homologous chromosome pairs in anaphase II of meiosis
d) the orientation of homologous chromosome pairs in metaphase II of meiosis
e) the orientation of homologous chromosome pairs in metaphase I of meiosis
b) the separation of homologous chromosome pairs in anaphase I of meiosis
During which phase of the cell cycle do the chromosomes align in one plane at the center of the cell?

a) Interphase
b) Prophase
c) Metaphase
d) Anaphase
e) G2
c) Metaphase
The planned process of cell suicide is called:

a) mitosis.
b) denaturation.
c) apoptosis.
d) metastasis.
e) anastomosis.
c) apoptosis.
ytokinesis:

a) occurs prior to mitosis.
b) occurs during meiosis but not mitosis.
c) refers to the division of a cell's cytoplasm.
d) occurs in animal cells but not plant cells.
e) Both b) and c).
c) refers to the division of a cell's cytoplasm.
A man having the "super male" genotype, meaning he has one extra Y-chromosome (XYY) marries a woman who is "meta female," having an extra X-chromosome (XXX). All of the following are possible genotypes of their children, EXCEPT:

a) YY.
b) XY.
c) XYY.
d) XX.
e) XXY.
a) YY
A karyotype is a physical representation (usually a photograph) of all of the chromosomes in a single cell; however, the cell must be in mitotic metaphase when the karyotype is made. Why?

a) Metaphase is the only stage of the cell cycle in which both sets of homologous chromosomes are present in the cell.
b) Metaphase is the only stage of the cell cycle in which both sister chromatids of each chromosome are present in the cell.
c) Metaphase is the only stage of the cell cycle in which the chromosomes have condensed and aligned, but have not yet separated.
d) Metaphase is the only stage of the cell cycle in which single chromosomes move toward the poles.
e) Metaphase is the only stage of the cell cycle in which the cell membrane is permeable to dye.
c) Metaphase is the only stage of the cell cycle in which the chromosomes have condensed and aligned, but have not yet separated
Which of the following human sex chromosome genotypes is not possible?

a) XX
b) XY
c) X_
d) XXY
e) YY
e) YY
The Gap 1, DNA Synthesis, and Gap 2 phases of the cell cycle are collectively called:

a) mitosis.
b) cytokinesis.
c) M phase.
d) interphase.
e) prophase.
d) interphase.
Which of the following statements about the cell cycle is NOT true?

a) Proteins are formed through all subphases of interphase.
b) The Gap 2 phase immediately follows the Gap 1 phase.
c) Histones are synthesized primarily during DNA synthesis phase.
d) It consists of mitosis and interphase.
e) A cell can remain in Gap 1 for an hour, a day, a week, or a year.
b) The Gap 2 phase immediately follows the Gap 1 phase
In multicellular organisms, cells that undergo mitotic division but not meiotic division are called _____ cells.

a) skin
b) somatic
c) interphase
d) germ
e) somosis
b) somatic
Trisomy 21 is a consequence of _______________________, the unequal distribution of chromosomes during meiosis.

a) cytokinesis
b) nondisjunction
c) triplet codon transcription
d) recombination
e) crossing over
b) nondisjunction
Generally speaking, when the female gamete (ovum) is fertilized by the male gamete (sperm), a fusion of their nuclei restores the number of chromosomes to:

a) the pre-existing gene frequency in the population.
b) the diploid condition.
c) Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium.
d) the haploid condition.
e) the double helix.
b) the diploid condition.
In most bacteria, the DNA:

a) is carried in a single circular chromosome.
b) floats freely in the cytoplasm. Most bacteria do not have chromosomes.
c) is carried in a single linear chromosome.
d) is carried in multiple circular chromosomes.
e) is wrapped around proteins called histones.
a) is carried in a single circular chromosome.
The number of chromosome pairs in a species:

a) generally increases over evolutionary time.
b) is greatest among insects.
c) is always 23.
d) is greatest among amiphibians.
e) is not correlated with the species' complexity.
e) is not correlated with the species' complexity.
"Metafemales" are:

a) females with an XY genotype.
b) females with an XX genotype.
c) males with an XX genotype.
d) females with an XXY genotype.
e) females with an XXX genotype.
e) females with an XXX genotype.
Aneuploidy (an abnormal number of chromosomes) occurs due to one particular erroneous meiotic event called:

a) metaphase I (paired homologs align down equator)
b) anaphase II (centromeres part)
c) crossing-over (swapping genetic material between chromosome homologs)
d) nondisjunction (chromosomes don't separate)
e) cytokinesis (cells divide)
d) nondisjunction (chromosomes don't separate)
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of Turner Syndrome?

a) X_ genotype
b) some learning difficulties
c) underdeveloped ovaries
d) web of skin between neck and shoulders
e) taller than average stature
e) taller than average stature
In multicellular organisms, the cells that undergo mitotic cellular division but not meiotic cell division are called:

a) interphase cells.
b) skin cells.
c) germ cells.
d) somatic cells.
e) somosis cells.
d) somatic cells.
Which of the following is NOT a potential type of abnormality in chromosome structure?

a) homologous exchange: when two homologous chromosomes exchange information equally
b) duplication: when a portion of a chromosome is repeated resulting in the chromosome containing additional genetic material
c) inversion: when part of a chromosome flips and reinserts in the opposite orientation on the same chromsome
d) deletion: when a sequence of genetic information is taken out of a chromosome
e) All of the above are potential causes of abnormalities in chromosomal structure.
a) homologous exchange: when two homologous chromosomes exchange information equally
Which of the following places the events of mitosis into the correct order?

a) chromosomes wind up, sister chromatids separate, chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell, cytokinesis occurs
b) sister chromatids separate, chromosomes wind up, cytokinesis occurs, chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell
c) chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell, cytokinesis occurs, sister chromatids separate, chromosomes wind up
d) cytokinesis occurs, chromosomes wind up, chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell, sister chromatids separate
e) chromosomes wind up, chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell, sister chromatids separate, cytokinesis occurs
e) chromosomes wind up, chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell, sister chromatids separate, cytokinesis occurs
Down syndrome results from which of the following chromosomal abnormalities?

a) Two Y chromosomes
b) A truncated copy of chromosome 3
c) translocation of genetic material on chromosome 21
d) All or part of a third copy of chromosome 21
e) The absence of a second copy of chromosome 10
d) All or part of a third copy of chromosome 21
Nondisjunction:

a) is the division of cytoplasmic constituents.
b) is the cause of sex determination in birds and mammals.
c) occurs during mitosis but not meiosis.
d) is the unequal division of the genetic material during cell division.
e) occurs only in prophase I of meiosis.
d) is the unequal division of the genetic material during cell division.
Which of the following does NOT contribute to variability of the offspring in sexual reproduction?

a) combining genes from two unrelated parents during fertilization
b) the different ways homologous can separate in Metaphase I
c) a brother and a sister producing children together
d) crossing over in Prophase I of meiosis
e) the swapping of genetic information between homologues during meiosis
c) a brother and a sister producing children together
The human genome comprises:

a) 23 chromosomes.
b) 46 chromosomes.
c) an X and a Y chromosome.
d) 46 pairs of chromosomes.
e) 48 chromosomes.
b) 46 chromosomes.
Using a light microscope, it is easiest to see chromosomes:

a) during mitosis and meiosis because the condensed chromosomes are thicker and therefore more prominent.
b) during asexual reproduction.
c) during interphase when they are concentrated in the nucleus.
d) during sexual reproduction.
e) during interphase because they are uncoiled and have a more linear structure.
a) during mitosis and meiosis because the condensed chromosomes are thicker and therefore more prominent.
Eukaryotic cells can divide by:

a) meiosis only.
b) fission only.
c) fusion only.
d) mitosis only.
e) both mitosis and meiosis.
e) both mitosis and meiosis.
Which of the following combinations of sex chromosomes is never seen in human being?

a) X_ (also written as XO)
b) XYY
c) XXY
d) XXX
e) YYY
e) YYY
The DNA in linear eukaryotic chromosomes is wrapped around proteins called _____________, which keep the DNA from getting tangled and enable an orderly, tight, and efficient packing of the DNA inside the cell.

a) telomeres
b) centromeres
c) centrioles
d) histamines
e) histones
e) histones
Which is the proper sequence of events in asexual cell division?

a) interphase ; prophase I ; metaphase I; anaphase I; telophase I; prophase II ; metaphase II; anaphase II; telophase II; cytokinesis
b) interphase ; prophase ; anaphase ; metaphase ; telophase ; cytokinesis
c) interphase ; mitosis ; meiosis ; cytokinesis
d) interphase ; prophase I ; metaphase I; anaphase I; telophase I; cytokinesis ; prophase II ; metaphase II; anaphase II; telophase II; cytokinesis
e) interphase ; prophase ; metaphase ; anaphase ; telophase ; cytokinesis
e) interphase ; prophase ; metaphase ; anaphase ; telophase ; cytokinesis
Separation of the chromatids at the end of metaphase leads into the next phase, which is:

a) prophase
b) interphase
c) anaphase
d) telophase
e) pro-metaphase
c) anaphase
A karyotype:

a) can be produced only from cells in telophase of mitosis.
b) reveals the autosomes but not the sex chromosomes.
c) can be used to diagnose Down syndrome in humans.
d) can be produced only from cells in telophase of mitosis or telophase II of meiosis.
e) is used to diagnose repetative genes.
c) can be used to diagnose Down syndrome in humans
Bacteria reproduce asexually, whereas most plants and animals reproduce sexually. Which is the better method?

a) Neither method is better—each is effective in different environments for different kinds of organisms.
b) Asexual reproduction, because there are more bacteria than plants and animals.
c) Asexual reproduction, because binary fission is more efficient.
d) Sexual reproduction, because there are more plants and animals than bacteria.
e) Sexual reproduction, insures more offspring.
a) Neither method is better—each is effective in different environments for different kinds of organisms.
What is the definition of "female"?

a) producing the larger, less motile gamete
b) producing more gametes
c) producing the smaller, less motile gamete
d) producing the female reproductive system
e) producing the smaller, more motile gamete
a) producing the larger, less motile gamete
Odometer is to an old, rusty car as __________ is to _________.

a) asexual reproduction, sexual reproduction
b) binary fission, mitosis
c) DNA replication, cell division
d) telomere, a cell after 50 cell divisions
e) circular chromosome, linear chromosome
d) telomere, a cell after 50 cell divisions
Anaphase of mitosis occurs when:

a) the chromatin coils into thicker, visible chromatids.
b) crossing over begins.
c) the nuclear envelope re-forms.
d) the sister chromatids from the homologous pairs of chromosomes come together as a tetrad.
e) the chromatids begin to separate from the metaphase plate.
e) the chromatids begin to separate from the metaphase plate.
Crossing over takes place during:

a) meiosis.
b) mitosis.
c) interphase.
d) cytokinesis.
e) None of the above are correct.
a) meiosis
Animal cells have "counters" that keep track of how many times a cell has divided. These counters are called:

a) telomeres.
b) nucleomeres.
c) odometers.
d) chromosomes.
e) centromeres.
a) telomeres.
rossing over refers to the exchange of genetic material between two homologous chromosomes. Which of the following statements about this event is correct?

a) Crossing over is more likely to occur with recessive alleles than with dominant ones.
b) Crossing over is more likely to occur between two genes that are widely separated on the chromosomes.
c) Crossing over is more likely to occur between two genes that occur next to each other on a chromosome.
d) Both a) and c) are correct.
e) Both b) and c) are correct.
b) Crossing over is more likely to occur between two genes that are widely separated on the chromosomes
Sex cells having the ___________ number of chromosomes are called ____________.

a) haploid ; gametes
b) diploid ; somatic cells
c) haploid ; zygotes
d) diploid ; sperm
e) diploid ; gametes
a) haploid ; gametes
Mitosis results in:

a) four daughter cells.
b) daughter cells with the same number and composition of chromosomes.
c) daughter cells with half as much genetic material and a unique collection of alleles.
d) daughter cells with the same number of chromosomes but different combinations of alleles.
e) Both a) and b).
b) daughter cells with the same number and composition of chromosomes.
A 30-year-old woman has a 1 in 3000 chance of giving birth to a child with trisomy 21 but a 48-year-old woman has a 1 in 9 chance. Which of the following is the most likely explanation for why a woman has a higher probability of giving birth to a child with trisomy 21 (Down syndrome) as she ages?

a) Older women have older oocytes, and the older the oocytes, the increased chance they will experience a nondisjunction event during meiosis.
b) Older women are more likely to mate with older men, and the older the man, the older the sperm. Older sperm are more likely to experience a nondisjunction event during meiosis.
c) Older women have lived longer and have an increased percentage of toxins and oxidative damage in their body. Since these are the major causes of trisomy 21, its likelihood increases.
d) Older women have older oocytes, and the older the oocytes, the greater the chance they will experience failure of cytokinesis during cell division.
e) Answers a) and d) provide the most likely explanations.
a) Older women have older oocytes, and the older the oocytes, the increased chance they will experience a nondisjunction event during meiosis.
In many species of birds males are XX and females are XZ. With birds like this who is most likely to display a sex-linked recessive trait?

a) females
b) males
c) The traits will show up equally in males and females.
d) Males and females are equally likely to display a sex-linked recessive trait.
e) The gender that's incubated at a higher temperature.
a) females
What would be the chromosome number in a human cell that is triploid (for each type of chromosome)?

a) 23
b) 46
c) 92
d) 69
e) 11 1/2
d) 69
A diploid cell undergoes meiosis. What are the products of this division?

a) Two diploid cells
b) Four haploid cells
c) Four diploid cells
d) Two haploid cells
e) Two polar bodies
b) Four haploid cells
Genes are borne on structures called:

a) nuclei.
b) gametes.
c) alleles.
d) chromosomes.
e) cells.
d) chromosomes.
In humans, the haploid number, n equals:

a) 3n.
b) 46.
c) 23.
d) 2n.
e) 23 pairs.
c) 23.
Bacteria divide by a type of ______________________ called ____________________.

a) sexual reproduction ; replication
b) sexual reproduction ; binary fission
c) asexual reproduction ; binary fission
d) asexual reproduction ; replication
e) asexual reproduction ; elongation
c) asexual reproduction ; binary fission
During which phase of mitosis does the nuclear envelope fragment?

a) cytokinesis
b) anaphase
c) interphase
d) prophase
e) metaphase
d) prophase
In female gamete development in humans and other vertebrates, the net result of meiosis is the production of one large egg and three small cells with very little cytoplasm. These three small cells:

a) are the cause of twins.
b) fuse together to form the placenta.
c) divide to form secondary egg cells.
d) degrade almost immediately.
e) fertilize the egg.
d) degrade almost immediately.
Healthy individuals may have just one sex chromosome, as long as it is an X chromosome. Why can't a person survive with a Y chromosome and no X chromosome?

a) The X chromosome is capable of duplicating itself, so that the affected individual will eventually have two X chromosomes; the Y chromosome is incapable of duplicating itself.
b) The X chromosome has a full complement of genetic material, much of which is vital to life; the Y chromosome is missing the vast majority of these genes.
c) The Y chromosome has a full complement of genetic material, much of which is vital to life; the X chromosome is missing the vast majority of these genes.
d) A person with just an X chromosome would be a female, while a person with just a Y chromosome would not have a sexual identity.
e) The statement above is incorrect; it is possible to survive with just a Y chromosome, it's just very rare.
b) The X chromosome has a full complement of genetic material, much of which is vital to life; the Y chromosome is missing the vast majority of these genes.
In some species, sex is determined by environmental, rather than genetic, factors. This is true of:

a) humans.
b) birds.
c) bees.
d) kangaroos.
e) turtles.
e) turtles.
Within interphase, which of the stages is defined by the active replication of the cell's genetic material?

a) the Gap 2 phase
b) the Gap 1 phase
c) the mitotic phase
d) the DNA synthesis phase
e) the replication phase
d) the DNA synthesis phase
The rate at which mitosis occurs varies dramatically for different types of cells. The most rapid cell division occurs:

a) in the blood and the cells lining the various tissues of organs.
b) in the blood and the heart.
c) in the liver and the brain.
d) on the skin.
e) in the gametes.
a) in the blood and the cells lining the various tissues of organs.
The eukaryotic chromosome:

a) consists of two linear strands of double-stranded DNA during Gap 2 phase.
b) contains no telomeres.
c) condenses only during anaphase of mitosis.
d) consists of a single linear strand of double-stranded DNA during Gap 2 phase.
e) is usually circular.
d) consists of a single linear strand of double-stranded DNA during Gap 2 phase.
Sexual reproduction leads to offspring that are all genetically different from one another and from either parent. What are the three aspects of sexual reproduction that lead to this variation?

a) crossing over during the production of gametes; shuffling and reassortment of homologues during mitosis; and combination of alleles from two parents at fertilization.
b) crossing over during the production of gametes; shuffling and reassortment of homologues during mitosis; and combination of alleles from two parents during binary fission.
c) crossing over during the production of gametes; shuffling and reassortment of homologues during meiosis; and combination of alleles from two parents at fertilization.
d) crossing over during the production of zygotes; shuffling and reassortment of homologues during mitosis; and combination of alleles from two parents at fertilization.
e) shuffling and reassortment of homologues during mitosis; shuffling and reassortment of homologues during meiosis; and combination of alleles from two parents at fertilization.
crossing over during the production of gametes; shuffling and reassortment of homologues during meiosis; and combination of alleles from two parents at fertilization.
Which process is necessary to prevent the doubling of genome size during sexual reproduction?

a) metastasis
b) meiosis
c) mitosis
d) apoptosis
e) contact inhibition
b) meiosis
Prokaryotic cells can divide via:

a) mitosis.
b) binary fission.
c) meiosis.
d) both mitosis and binary fission.
e) None of the above is correct.
b) binary fission.
Sister chromatids are:

a) produced in meiosis but not in mitosis.
b) the result of crossing over.
c) single-stranded.
d) identical molecules of DNA resulting from replication.
e) homologous chromosomes.
d) identical molecules of DNA resulting from replication.
The only situation in which a person can survive without one of a pair of chromosomes is:

a) "Metafemales," X_, in which a female has only one sex chromosome.
b) "Super Males," Y_, in which a male has only one sex chromosome.
c) Klinefelter Syndrome, X_, in which a female has only one sex chromosome.
d) Turner Syndrome, X_, in which a female has only one sex chromosome.
e) There is no situation in which a person can survive without one of a pair of chromosomes.
d) Turner Syndrome, X_, in which a female has only one sex chromosome.
Which of the following is the best way to distinguish male from female?

a) Females produce offspring.
b) Males are more aggressive.
c) Males are larger.
d) Males produce motile gametes.
e) All of the above are correct.
d) Males produce motile gametes.
A cell is said to have reached the metaphase stage of mitosis when:

a) the chromatin condenses into chromosomes.
b) the nuclear envelope disappears.
c) the centromeres have arrived at the equatorial plate.
d) separation of the chromatids begins.
e) None of the above answers is correct.
c) the centromeres have arrived at the equatorial plate.
DNA replication occurs during the _____________ phase of the cell cycle.

a) cytokinesis
b) Gap 2
c) prophase
d) Gap 1
e) DNA Synthesis
e) DNA Synthesis
A karyotype of one of your skin cells would reveal a total of 46 chromosomes. How many of these are maternally inherited autosomes?

a) 22
b) 24
c) 46
d) 23
e) 21
a) 22
Which of the following is the direct product of DNA replication?

a) cytokinesis
b) two sister chromatids
c) the two strands in a DNA helix
d) the production of two spindle fibers
e) the lining up of chromosomes in mitosis metaphase
b) two sister chromatids
During metaphase II in meiosis a cell contains ________ of the DNA it did during prophase I.

a) four times as much
b) twice as much
c) the same amount
d) 1/4
e) 1/2
e) 1/2
Somatic cells can include:

a) kidney cells.
b) brain cells.
c) sperm cells.
d) All of the above are correct.
e) Both a) and b) are correct.
e) Both a) and b) are correct.
The chromosomes of bacteria are:

a) tetrahedral.
b) sickle-shaped.
c) capsular.
d) circular.
e) linear.
d) circular.
Which of the following is NOT a method of sex determination that occurs in nature?

a) In sea turtles, eggs laid in hot sand becomes females and eggs laid in cooler sand become males.
b) In birds, the female is the heterogametic (ZW) sex and the male is the homogametic (ZZ) sex.
c) In bees, the eggs that the queen allows to be fertilized become females and the eggs she doesn't fertilize become males.
d) In humans, the male is the heterogametic (XY) sex and the female is the homogametic (XX) sex.
e) All of the above are naturally occurring examples of sex determination.
e) All of the above are naturally occurring examples of sex determination.
The purpose of mitosis is to enable existing cells:

a) to generate new, genetically identical cells.
b) to generate new, genetically diverse cells.
c) to increase hormone levels.
d) to generate gametes.
e) to die on purpose.
a) to generate new, genetically identical cells.
The linear strands of DNA in eukaryotes are efficiently packed within the nucleus of the cell. The packing of DNA strands are mediated by proteins called:

a) DNA polymerases.
b) histones.
c) barr bodies.
d) topoisomerases.
e) nucleosomes.
b) histones.
In humans, both sexes have the same number of autosomes but different ratios of sex chromosomes. Males are XY and females are XX. Which of the following statements comparing the X and Y chromosomes is NOT true?

a) There are regions on the Y chromosome that are identical to the genes on the X chromosome.
b) The Y chromosome is much smaller than the X chromosome, with 85 genes and 1,000 genes respectively.
c) There are regions on the Y chromosome that are unique and not found on the X chromosome.
d) The X and Y chromosomes do NOT behave like homologous chromosomes during meiosis.
e) Genetic instructions on the Y chromosome instruct the fetal gonads to develop as testes rather than ovaries.
d) The X and Y chromosomes do NOT behave like homologous chromosomes during meiosis.
Which of the following is NOT a disadvantage of sexual reproduction?

a) The transfer of genetic information from generation to generation is not as efficient as it is during asexual reproduction.
b) Organisms can expose themselves to danger during the mating process.
c) Variability among offspring enables parents to produce a range of offspring, any one of which may be suitable to changes in the environment.
d) Sexual reproduction breaks down genotypes that are well-adapted for a stable environment.
e) It takes time and energy to find a mating partner.
c) Variability among offspring enables parents to produce a range of offspring, any one of which may be suitable to changes in the environment.
The majority of a eukaryotic cell's life is spent in an "in-between-division" stage referred to as:

a) interphase.
b) dormant phase.
c) prophase.
d) S phase.
e) static phase.
) interphase.
Spindle fibers are present in all the phases of mitosis EXCEPT:

a) metaphase.
b) anaphase.
c) telophase.
d) prophase.
e) spindle fibers are present in all of these phases.
c) telophase.
Which of the following is TRUE about meiosis in men and women?

a) In egg production, the division of cells in meiosis produces cells of equal size.
b) Sperm production results in 4 cells from one starting cell; for eggs, only one egg results from one starting cell.
c) Sperm are larger in size than eggs.
d) The egg is motile while the sperm is not.
e) Women make sperm while men make eggs.
b) Sperm production results in 4 cells from one starting cell; for eggs, only one egg results from one starting cell.
For crossing over to increase genetic variation, it must involve the exchange of material between:

a) nonsister chromatids of a homologous pair of chromosomes.
b) nonhomologous chromosomes.
c) sister chromatids of a single chromosome.
d) gametes from the two different sexes.
e) Crossing over can increase genetic variation in any of the ways mentioned above.
a) nonsister chromatids of a homologous pair of chromosomes.
Plant species A has a diploid chromosome number of 18. Plant species B has a diploid chromosome number of 10. A new species C arises as an allopolyploid of speces A and B. What is the most likely diploid chromosome number of species C?

a) 10
b) 28
c) 38
d) 18
e) 24
b) 28
Which of the following explains the fact that the Y chromosome carries nonessential information?

a) Sperm contribute no genetic information to the egg in fertilization.
b) Males are not needed in sexually reproducing species.
c) Eggs that are not fertilized can still develop into normal human beings.
d) Women don't have a Y chromosome and are not genetically disadvantaged.
e) A man who inherits two or three Y chromosomes as a result of an error in meiosis is fully normal.
d) Women don't have a Y chromosome and are not genetically disadvantaged.
Some fertility clinics now promise that a couple can choose the sex of their baby. What technique might allow for this?

a) Separating the father's sperm according to weight, as the X chromosome weighs more than the Y chromosome.
b) Separating the father's sperm according to weight, as the Y chromosome weighs more than the X chromosome.
c) Semen with more Y sperm tends to be more acidic and can be tested for.
d) Add a fluorescent dye to the father's sperm—sperm that show more fluorescence contain an X chromosome.
e) Both a) and d) are correct.
e) Both a) and d) are correct.
A leaf on a plant is photosynthesizing rapidly, capturing sunlight to perform the light reactions. Why will this plant also need to perform the dark (synthesis) reactions?

a. to make more energy to fuel other activities performed by the plant
b. to release ATP to the environme
c. to make glucose (food) for the plant
d. to release oxygen to the environment
b. to release ATP to the environment
A living plant is exposed to water labeled with 1818O (a radioactive isotope of oxygen) and exposed to sunlight. The O will end up in where at the end of photosynthesis?

a. in glucose
b. in rubisco
c. in CO2
d. in released oxygen gas
e. in PGAL
d. in released oxygen gas
A scientist is trying to determine whether a newly discovered plant performs photosynthesis like other plants. The water she gives the plants contains radioactive oxygen whose location can be traced. After the experiment, she finds all the radioactive oxygen in the atmosphere surrounding the plant and none of it in the plant tissue. This finding is:

a. none of these choices
b. unusual, because oxygen from water should have become part of the CO2 molecules released by the plant during photosynthesis
c. as expected, oxygen from water is usually released from the plant
d. unusual, because oxygen from the water should become part of the sugars made in the Calvin cycle, none of this oxygen should be released into the environment
c. as expected, oxygen from water is usually released from the plant
Animals rely on photosynthesis for:

a. ATP and glucose
b. oxygen and CO2
c. glucose and CO2
d. oxygen and glucose
d. oxygen and glucose
Do photosynthesizing plants have mitochondria?

a. yes, to convert glucose to starch
b. yes, to convert CO2 to O
c. no, they aren't needed
d. yes, to produce lots of ATP for the plant through cellular respiration
d. yes, to produce lots of ATP for the plant through cellular respiration
Light hits PSII which causes electrons to be excited to a high energy level. These electrons are picked up by an electron acceptor and passed through an electron transport chain where _____________ is made.
a. NADPH
b. O2
c. ATP
d. PGAL (G3P)
c. ATP
The light (photo) reactions of photosynthesis occur in the ________________ while the dark (synthesis) reactions occur in the ________________.

a. thylakoids, stroma
b. stroma, cytoplasm
c. thylakoids, stomata
d. cytoplasm, stomata
a. thylakoids, stroma
The purpose of chlorophyll is to:

a.let CO2 enter the plant
b.make ATP
c.absorb light
d.make NADPH
c.absorb light
Which of the following is false concerning ATP?
a. it contains a nitrogenous base called adenosine
b. it contains three phosphates
c. when broken down the reaction is endergonic
d. all of the above are true
c. when broken down the reaction is endergonic
Which of the following is false concerning energy?

a. potential energy can be converted to kinetic energy
b. energy can't be created or destroyed
c. energy conversions produce heat
d. all of the above are true
d. all of the above are true
Which of the following is part of the Calvin cycle (synthesis reactions)?
a. producing CO2
b. breaking down PGAL
c. converting solar energy to ATP and NADPH
d. carbon fixation
d. carbon fixation
Why do plants split water molecules during the light reactions of photosynthesis?

a. to provide the oxygen necessary to convert solar energy to chemical energy
b. to provide oxygen for the Calvin cycle
c. to provide electrons for the light dependent reactions and hydrogen atoms needed in the light independent (dark) reaction
d. to provide carbon dioxide for the Calvin cycle
c. to provide electrons for the light dependent reactions and hydrogen atoms needed in the light independent (dark) reaction
A drug is tested in the laboratory and is found to create holes in the cristae (folds) membrane of the mitochondria. You suspect that the drug is harmful to human cells because it will inhibit:

a.the electron transport chain
b.the Krebs cycle
c.glycolysis
d.the transition reaction
a.the electron transport chain
A physician wants to determine at what point an athlete's muscles begin to perform anaerobic respiration after strenuous exercise. He could do this by checking for a buildup of:
a.ATP
b.NADH
c.lactic acid
d.carbon dioxide
c.lactic acid
A scientist is studying how various substances are used and changed in cellular respiration. In one experiment, she allowed a mouse to inhale a radioactive isotope of oxygen. She was then able to trace the location of the oxygen in the mouse. Where would the radioactive oxygen atoms show up?
a. in carbon dioxide; CO2
b. in glucose; C6H12O6
c. in water; H2O
d. in ATP
c. in water; H2O
At the end of the electron transport chain, the final acceptor of the electrons is ______, which will then produce a molecule of ______.

a. O2; H2O
b. ADP; ATP
c. CO2; O2
d. NAD+; NADH
a. O2; H2O
Consider a bacterial cell that performs anaerobic respiration. If that bacterial cell had access to 6 molecules of glucose to use, how many ATPs would it be able to produce?
a. 2 ATP
c. 12 ATP
b. 6 ATP
d. 36 ATP
c. 12 ATP
The final result of ATP production after complete aerobic respiration is:
a. the same as the amount of ATP made in anaerobic respiration
b. high relative to the amount of ATP made in anaerobic respiration
c. low relative to the amount of ATP made in anaerobic respiration
d. equal to the amount of ATP made in glycolysis
b. high relative to the amount of ATP made in anaerobic respiration
What is released as a by-product of cellular respiration during the conversion of pyruvate into acetyl-CoA (the transition reaction)?
a.water
b.oxygen
c.glucose
d.pyruvate
e. carbon dioxide
e. carbon dioxide
What is the only benefit of fermentation?

a. that it produces a lot of ATP
b. that lactic acid is made
c. that ethanol is made
d. that it recycles NAD+
d. that it recycles NAD+
What is the purpose of the Kreb's cycle?
a. to produce glucose
b. to directly make a large amount of ATP
c. to break down pyruvate
d. to utilize NAD+ and FAD as much as possible so that there is potential to make ATP in the electron transport chain
d. to utilize NAD+ and FAD as much as possible so that there is potential to make ATP in the electron transport chain
Which of the following is not true concerning the locations of the following processes?
a.the transition reaction occurs in the mitochondrial matrix
b.the Kreb's cycle occurs in the cytoplasm
c.the electron transport chain occurs across the cristae membrane of the mitchondria
d.glycolysis occurs in the cytoplasm
b.the Kreb's cycle occurs in the cytoplasm
Which step of cellular respiration produces the least ATP?
a.glycolysis
b.Kreb's cycle
c.transition reaction
d.electron transport chain
c.transition reaction
A human cell fails to undergo cytokinesis while performing mitosis so that the daughter cells do not form. How many chromosomes will be in the resulting cell?
a.92
b.46
c.23
d.184
a.92
A human cell undergoes mitosis. The resulting cells have _____ chromosomes:
a.46
b.23
c.92
d.8
a.46
A normal human cell that is not dividing will contain _____ chromosomes. These chromosomes will each consist of _____ chromatid(s).
a.23; 1
b.46; 1
c.46; 2
d.23; 2
b.46; 1
Brain cells and muscle cells lose the ability to perform mitosis at maturity. This means that these cells must be in the __________ phase of the cell cycle.
a.G2
b.G0
c.S
d. M
e.G1
b.G0
Cytochalasin B is a chemical that disrupts spindle fiber formation. Based on this information, this chemical would interfere with ____________________ during mitosis.
a. proper alignment of chromosomes during mitosis
b. the ability of the chromosome to replicate
c. the ability of the nuclear membrane to disappear
d. all of these choices would be prevented
a. proper alignment of chromosomes during mitosis
If starting with a cell that has a haploid number of 10, during mitosis there will _____ chromosomes at metaphase, _______ chromosomes at anaphase, and _______ chromosomes per daughter cell at telophase.
a. 20; 20; 20
b. 10; 10; 10
c. 20; 20; 10
d. 10; 20; 10
e. 20; 40; 20
e. 20; 40; 20
Imagine that you are looking at a cell in the microscope. When you examine the cell, you see that the nucleus is not present and that the chromosomes are condensed and lined up in the center of the cell. What are the possible stages of division in which this cell might be?
a.prophase
b.anaphase
c.telophase
d.metaphase
d.metaphase
In mitosis, the chromosome number of each of the daughter cells will be _____________ the chromosome number of the parent cell.
a.exactly twice as many as
b.more than
c.the same as
d.exactly half as many as
c.the same as
Regarding humans, when would mitosis not be appropriate?
a.to replace cells that have died
b.for growth
c.to repair injured cells
d.for reproduction
d.for reproduction
Crossing over occurs during ___________ and it is important because it ___________.
a.Metaphase I; reduces the chromosome number by half
b.Prophase I; generates diversity
c.Telophase II; creates daughter cells
d.Anaphase II; separates the homologous pairs
b.Prophase I; generates diversity
If a daughter cell contains 6 chromosomes at the end of Meiosis I, how many chromosomes will each of the daughter cells contain at the Meiosis II?
a.3
b.12
c.6
d.24
c.6
If a sperm cell contains 8 chromosomes, it must have come from a parent cell with ____ chromosomes.
a.4
b.32
c.16
d.6
c.16
Imagine that you are looking at a cell in the microscope. When you examine the cell, you see that the nucleus is not present and that the chromosomes are condensed and lined up singly in the center of the cell.

What are the possible stages of division in which this cell might be?
a.metaphase of meiosis II
b.metaphase of meiosis I
c.metaphase of mitosis or meiosis II
d.metaphase of mitosis
c.metaphase of mitosis or meiosis II
What is decreased during the process of meiosis?
a.the number of cells
b.the size of chromosomes
c.all of the these decrease during meiosis
d.the number of chromosomes
d.the number of chromosomes
Which of the following is not a difference between mitosis and meiosis?
a.the number of daughter cells produced
b.cytokinesis
c.the number of rounds performed
d.synapsis (crossing over)
b.cytokinesis
Why is Meiosis II needed for gamete (egg and sperm) production?
a.all of these answers
b.to generate genetic diversity
c.to make the gametes haploid
d.to get unreplicated chromosomes in the gametes
d.to get unreplicated chromosomes in the gametes
You are looking at diagrams of cells in the process of division. You are uncertain as to what process you are viewing. You determine that the cells you are looking at have 5 chromosomes. Based on this chromosome number you must be viewing:
a.mitosis
b.meiosis I
c.meiosis II
d.any of these
c.meiosis II