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180 Cards in this Set

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A substance that cannot be broken down into other substances by ordinary chemical procedures is a(n) _____.
element
About 25 of the 92 natural elements are known to be essential to life. Which four of these 25 elements make up approximately 96% of living matter?
1. Carbon
2. Oxygen
3. Hydrogen
4. Nitrogen
The bonds between water molecules are?
Hydrogen bonds
What name is given to the bond between water molecules?
Hydrogen bonds
How are water molecules attracted to each other specifically?
A hydrogen atom with a net positive charge is attracted to an oxygen atom with a net negative charge.
A carbon atom and a hydrogen atom form what type of bond in a molecule?
nonpolar covalent bond; atoms with similar electronegativities form nonpolar covalent bonds.
An ionic bond is formed when _____.
one atom transfers an electron to another atom.

Transfer of an electron from one atom to another results in a positive ion (cation) and a negative ion (anion), which usually attract each other to form an ionic bond. However, the ions need not have acquired their electrical charge due to an electron transfer with each other.
Hydrogen bonding is most often seen _____.
when hydrogen is covalently bonded to an electronegative atom.

Highly electronegative atoms attract shared electrons more strongly than hydrogen does, resulting in a slight positive charge on the hydrogen atom. The slightly positive hydrogen atom is then attracted to another electronegative atom, forming a hydrogen bond.
Water molecules have a polarity, which allows them to be electrically attracted to other water molecules and other polar molecules by weak chemical bonds known as _____.
Hydrogen bonds
The slight negative charge at one end of one water molecule is attracted to the slight positive charge of another water molecule. What is this attraction called?
A hydrogen bond
The partial negative charge in a molecule of water occurs because
the electrons shared between the oxygen and hydrogen atoms spend more time around the oxygen atom nucleus than around the hydrogen atom nucleus
Water molecules are able to form hydrogen bonds with
compounds that have polar covalent bonds
An acid is a substance that _____.
increases the hydrogen ion concentration of an aqueous solution
A pH of 6 is how many times more acidic than a pH of 9?
1,000.

A pH of 6 is 10 times more acidic than 7, which is 10 times more acidic than 8, which is 10 times more acidic than 9. 10 x 10 x 10 = 1,000.
What best describes a buffer?
A buffer resists change in pH by accepting hydrogen ions when acids are added to the solution and donating hydrogen ions when bases are added.

In this fashion, buffers minimize the change in the pH of a solution.
What is the pH of a solution with a hydroxyl ion [OH-] concentration of 10^-12 M?
pH 2.
If the pH of a solution is decreased from 9 to 8, it means that the
concentration of [H+] has increased tenfold (10X) and the concentration of [OH-] has decreased to one-tenth (1/10) what they were at pH 9
If the pH of a solution is increased from pH 5 to pH 7, it means that the
concentration of is 100 times greater than what it was at pH 5.
The element present in all organic molecules is
CARBON
The complexity and variety of organic molecules is due to
the chemical versatility of carbon atoms.
Glycogen is _____.
A polysaccharide found in animals.

Animals store energy in the form of glycogen.
glucose + glucose —> _____ by _____.
maltose + water ... dehydration synthesis

Maltose is the disaccharide formed when two glucose molecules are linked by dehydration synthesis.
Which of these is a source of lactose
a) potatoes
b) milk
c) starch
d) sugar cane
e) sugar beets

Lactose is the sugar found in milk.
Which of these is a polysaccharide?
a) galactose
b) lactose
c) glucose
d) cellulose
e) sucrose

Answer: d; cellulose is a carbohydrate composed of many monomers
Lactose, a sugar in milk, is composed of one glucose molecule joined by a glycosidic linkage to one galactose molecule. How is lactose classified?
A disaccharide
WHAT IS true of both starch and cellulose?
They are both polymers of glucose
A molecule with the chemical formula C6H12O6 is probably a
A) carbohydrate and lipid only.
B) lipid.
C) monosaccharide
D)carbohydrate.
E) carbohydrate and monosaccharide only.

e.
Correct
Which of these is NOT a lipid?
a) steroids
b) phospholipid
c) wax
d) RNA
e) cholesterol

D
Polyunsaturated fat sources
soybean, sunflower, fish and corn oils.
Monounsaturated fat sources
olive, peanut, and canola oils.
T/F: Most plants are rich in unsaturated fats.
TRUE.

Olive oil is a plant oil, and most plant oils are rich in unsaturated fats.
A function of cholesterol that does not harm health is its role _____.
as a component of animal cell membranes
A molecule with the formula C18H36O2 is probably a
FATTY ACID.
Proteins are polymers of
amino acids
What type of bond joins the monomers in a protein's primary structure?
Peptide (covalent) bonds
The secondary structure of a protein results from _____.
hydrogen bonds

Electronegative oxygen and nitrogen atoms leave hydrogen atoms with partial positive charges.
Are tertiary structures dependent upon peptide bonds?
NO.

They have multiple types of bonds such as disulfide (covalent) bonds, ionic bonds, hydrogen bonds, etc.

Peptide bonds link together the amino acids of a protein's primary structure.
Which bonds are created during the formation of the primary structure of a protein?
peptide bonds only
Define the tertiary structure of a protein:
unique three-dimensional shape of the fully folded polypeptide.
Which type of interaction stabilizes the α helix and the β pleated sheet structures of proteins?
hydrogen bonds
What structure is the sequence of amino acids in a protein?
Primary structure
What is the secondary structure of a protein
describes the alpha-helices and beta-sheets that are formed by hydrogen bonding between backbone atoms located near each other in the polypeptide chain.
What composes the tertiary structure of a protein?
tertiary structure is achieved when a protein folds into a compact, three-dimensional shape stabilized by interactions between side chain R groups of amino acids.
What composes the quaternary structure of a protein?
quaternary structure is the result of two or more protein subunites assembling to form a larger, biologically active protein complex.
Which structure is not a component of a nucleotide?
a) sulfhydryl oxygen group
b) phosphate group
c) pentose
d) nitrogen-containing base
A
Where is the sugar bonded to in a nucleotide?
to the phosphate group AND the nitrogenous base.

the phosphate group is NOT bonded to the nitrogenous base
T/F: The sugar in a nucleotide can be either ribose or deoxyribose.
TRUE!!!
Where is the phosphate group bonded?
to the sugar, NOT the nitrogenous base
T/F: The phosphate group is bonded to the sugar, not to the nitrogenous base.
TRUE!!!!
True or false? Guanine and uracil are examples of nitrogenous bases.
TRUE!!!
Which linkage forms the backbone of a nucleic acid?
A sugar-phosphate linkage
Which of the following statements about DNA structure is true?
a) Phosphodiester bonds form between the phosphate group of one nucleotide and the 5’ carbon of the adjacent nucleotide.
b) DNA is always synthesized in the 3’ to 5’ direction.
c) The nucleic acid strands in a DNA molecule are oriented antiparallel to each other.
d) The arrangement of the sugar-phosphate groups determines the genetic code.
c!!!
What is the complementary DNA sequence to

5’ ATGCATGTCA 3’?
5’ TGACATGCAT 3’
What best summarizes the differences between DNA and RNA?
DNA nucleotides contain a different sugar than RNA nucleotides.
Select the statement that is incorrect.
a) Complex sugars are carbohydrates.
b) All carbohydrates have the general formula .
c) Simple sugars are carbohydrates.
d) Simple sugars contain only carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen atoms.
B

This formula only applies to simple sugars, which are equal parts carbon and water. Complex sugars, which do not have this general formula, are also carbohydrates.
What cannot be hydrolyzed any further?
A monosaccharide
A carbohydrate is
A simple sugar composed of equal parts carbon and water which gave rise to the name of any general sugar to a carbohydrate.
What type of sugar is lactose? Why?
Lactose, the sugar in milk, is a disaccharide because it can be split into two monosaccharides.
What is a polysaccharide?
A carbohydrate that yields many monosaccharides when hydrolyzed.
The structural level of a protein least affected by a disruption in hydrogen bonding is the
PRIMARY LEVEL.

The primary level is composed of peptide (covalent bonds) therefore will not be affected by disruption in hydrogen bonding found in secondary, tertiary, and quaternary levels.
The molecular formula for glucose is (C6H12O6) . What would be the molecular formula for a polymer made by linking ten glucose molecules together by dehydration reactions?
C60H102O51
Which answer best explains why organisms that have an ETC as well as fermentation pathways almost never ferment pyruvate if the electron acceptor required by the ETC is available?
A. The molecule formed by addition of an electron to pyruvate is toxic to the cell.

B. Fermentation is extremely inefficient in terms of the number of ATP molecules produced for each molecule of glucose metabolized.

C. The ETC outcompetes fermentation pathways for use of the electron acceptor.

D. Fermentation is extremely inefficient because it is so slow.
b

My reasoning being that fermentation is very inefficient in that it produces 2 molecules of ATP through glycolysis whereas cellular respiration with an ETC can produce 30-32 due to a mitochondrion in the cell being present.
What is the secondary structure of a protein
describes the alpha-helices and beta-sheets that are formed by hydrogen bonding between backbone atoms located near each other in the polypeptide chain.
What composes the tertiary structure of a protein?
tertiary structure is achieved when a protein folds into a compact, three-dimensional shape stabilized by interactions between side chain R groups of amino acids.
What composes the quaternary structure of a protein?
quaternary structure is the result of two or more protein subunites assembling to form a larger, biologically active protein complex.
Which structure is not a component of a nucleotide?
a) sulfhydryl oxygen group
b) phosphate group
c) pentose
d) nitrogen-containing base
A
Where is the sugar bonded to in a nucleotide?
to the phosphate group AND the nitrogenous base.

the phosphate group is NOT bonded to the nitrogenous base
T/F: The sugar in a nucleotide can be either ribose or deoxyribose.
TRUE!!!
Where is the phosphate group bonded?
to the sugar, NOT the nitrogenous base
T/F: The phosphate group is bonded to the sugar, not to the nitrogenous base.
TRUE!!!!
True or false? Guanine and uracil are examples of nitrogenous bases.
TRUE!!!
Which linkage forms the backbone of a nucleic acid?
A sugar-phosphate linkage
Why are plants and bacteria grouped into different domains?
Plants have a membrane-bounded nucleus, which bacterial cells lack.
Hydrogen bonds occur when
partial opposite charges on molecules come close enough to attract each other
It's correct to say that buffers
tend to prevent great fluctuations in pH
If the concentration of a hydroxyl ion [OH-] is 10^-9 M in a solution, what is the pH?
5.

If it's 10^-9, subtract that from 14, which is -5.

pH = -log [H+]; -log[-5] = 5
If [H+] = 10^-2 what is the pH?
2.

pH = -log [H+]; -log[-2] = 2
Is hydroxyl polar or non-polar?
HYDROXYL IS POLAR!!!
If electrons are being shared equally, will the bond be polar?

How do you know?
NO!! If electrons are being shared, it WILL NOT be polar.

Polar molecules have partial neg/pos charges i.e. water molecules or hydroxyl groups.

LIKE DISSOLVES LIKE.
What is the complementary DNA sequence to:

5' ATGCATGTCA 3'
5' TGACATGCAT 3'

1. Do inverse:

3' TACGTACAGT 5'

2. Make it back to 5' starting the sequence:

5' TGACATGCAT
What would tend to increase membrane fluidity?
A greater proportion of unsaturated phospholipids.

Unsaturated fats are softer at room temp whereas saturated fats are more solid/harder making it more difficult to pass through.
If a researcher is wanting to film the movement of chromosomes during cell division - what microscope should be utilized?

WHY?
A light microscope because the specimen is alive; all other methods require slicing or killing to put on a slide.

The cell needs to stay ALIVE.
What organelles do prokaryotic cells contain?
Prokaryotic cells ONLY HAVE ONE TYPE OF ORGANELLE:

RIBOSOMES

Ribosomes are integral for production of proteins; the basis of life.
All of the following form part of the endomembrane system EXCEPT:
A. rough & smooth ER

B. ribosomes

C. perioxysomes

D. golgi apparatus
C.
IS THE MITOCHONDRION A PART OF THE ENDOMEMBRANE SYSTEM?
NO.

NEITHER ARE CHLOROPLASTS OR PERIOXYSOMES
Where does cellular respiration harvest the MOST energy?
Chemiosmosis
What is the net ATP of glycolysis?

IS IT EFFICIENT?
2 ATP.

No
What are examples of electron carriers?

What do they do?
NADP+ or FADH+

Electron carriers power the ETC which produces ATP. Are used in the Krebs cycle.
What are the overall steps of cellular respiration?
1. Glycolysis
-> net ATP of 2

2. Krebs Cycle
-> elec. carriers power the ETC

3. Oxidative phosphorylation
-> a) Electron Transport Chain
-> b) Chemiosmosis
How many carbons does glucose contain?
6

C6H12O6
What converts ADP to ATP
The enzyme ATP synthase
In the overall process of glycolysis and cellular respiration

1. WHAT IS OXIDIZED?
2. WHAT IS REDUCED?
1. Glucose is oxidized
2. Oxygen is reduced
What bases are pyrimidines?
1. Cytosine

2. Uracil

3. Thymine
What bases are purines?
1. Adenine

2. Guanine
Which base pairs has the strongest bond?

What type of bond? How many?
Cytosine-Guanine has 3 hydrogen bonds.
Which base pair is the weakest?

What type of bond? How many?
Adenine-Thymine has 2 hydrogen bonds.
What is the formula for cellular respiration?
C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2O + Energy (as ATP)

or

Glucose (sugar) + Oxygen → Carbon dioxide + Water + Energy (as ATP)
What is the formula for photosynthesis?
Carbon dioxide + Water -> glucose + oxygen
During photosynthesis where is oxygen produced from?

via what?
O2 is produced from water via photosystem II.

(light reaction in photosystem II occurs before light reaction in photosystem I)

The only reason it's called photosystem I is because it was discovered first, it does not occur first.
When the proton number and electron number are unequal, the atom or molecule is:
A cation (+) or anion (-)
The formation of the primary structure of a protein is made of what type of bonds?
Peptide (covalent)
What are the FOUR MAIN important categories of large molecules present in living systems?
1. Proteins

2. Carbohydrates

3. Lipids

4. Nucleic acids
Motor proteins provide for molecular motion in cells by interacting with what type of cellular structures?
cytoskeleton
What is powered by a proton (H+) gradient in both photosynthesis and cellular respiration?
ATP synthase
The building blocks of monomers of nucleic acid molecules are called
nucleotides
What is composed of DNA and protein and also a large and small subunit?
Ribosomes
What are microfilaments composed of?
Actin protein
What is the structure of a carboxyl group?
C=O
|
OH
What is the structure of an amino group?
N - H
|
H
Where does cellular respiration occur?
The mitochondrion
What organelle does not have the same DNA/genetic info as the nucleus?
The mitochondrion
What are three common disaccharides?
1) maltose
2) sucrose
3) lactose
glucose + glucose =
maltose
glucose + fructose =
sucrose
glucose + galactose
lactose
What are storage polysaccharides?
1. starch

2. glycogen
What are plant structure polysaccharides?
1. cellulose
How many naturally occurring amino acids are there?
20
What composes a "peptide"
1-4 amino acids linked by peptide bonds (covalent)
What composes a "polypeptide"
5+ amino acids linked by peptide (covalent) bonds

is synonymous w/ protein
What bond does an unsaturated fat have?
double bond
What bond does a saturated fat have?
no double bond
Do lipids form polymers?
NO!!
how many bonds are in a monounsaturated fat?
one double bond
Do lipids form polymers?
NO!!
how many bonds are in polyunsaturated fats?
more than one double bond
how many bonds are in a monounsaturated fat?
one double bond
how many bonds are in polyunsaturated fats?
more than one double bond
What are the components of the phospholipid bilayer?
1. hydrophilic head

2. hydrophobic tail
What are the components of the phospholipid bilayer?
1. hydrophilic head

2. hydrophobic tail
Do lipids form polymers?
NO!!
Do lipids form polymers?
NO!!
Facilitated diffusion is composed of:
1. carrier proteins

2. channel proteins
Facilitated diffusion is composed of:
1. carrier proteins

2. channel proteins
how many bonds are in a monounsaturated fat?
one double bond
Where is the sodium potassium pump used?
active transport
Do lipids form polymers?
NO!!
how many bonds are in a monounsaturated fat?
one double bond
how many bonds are in a monounsaturated fat?
one double bond
Define exocytosis:
intracellular waste clean-up
how many bonds are in polyunsaturated fats?
more than one double bond
Where is the sodium potassium pump used?
active transport
how many bonds are in polyunsaturated fats?
more than one double bond
What are the components of the phospholipid bilayer?
1. hydrophilic head

2. hydrophobic tail
Define exocytosis:
intracellular waste clean-up
how many bonds are in polyunsaturated fats?
more than one double bond
What type of diffusion uses ATP
Active transport uses ATP; with passive transport no assistance is needed.
What are the components of the phospholipid bilayer?
1. hydrophilic head

2. hydrophobic tail
What are the components of the phospholipid bilayer?
1. hydrophilic head

2. hydrophobic tail
Facilitated diffusion is composed of:
1. carrier proteins

2. channel proteins
Define endocytosis:
encloses particles from outside the cell to go in
What type of diffusion uses ATP
Active transport uses ATP; with passive transport no assistance is needed.
Where is the sodium potassium pump used?
active transport
Define exocytosis:
intracellular waste clean-up
Facilitated diffusion is composed of:
1. carrier proteins

2. channel proteins
Define metabolism:
the totality of an organism's chemical reactions
Define endocytosis:
encloses particles from outside the cell to go in
What type of diffusion uses ATP
Active transport uses ATP; with passive transport no assistance is needed.
Facilitated diffusion is composed of:
1. carrier proteins

2. channel proteins
Where is the sodium potassium pump used?
active transport
Define metabolism:
the totality of an organism's chemical reactions
Where is the sodium potassium pump used?
active transport
Define endocytosis:
encloses particles from outside the cell to go in
Define metabolism:
the totality of an organism's chemical reactions
Define exocytosis:
intracellular waste clean-up
Define exocytosis:
intracellular waste clean-up
What type of diffusion uses ATP
Active transport uses ATP; with passive transport no assistance is needed.
What type of diffusion uses ATP
Active transport uses ATP; with passive transport no assistance is needed.
Define endocytosis:
encloses particles from outside the cell to go in
Define endocytosis:
encloses particles from outside the cell to go in
Define metabolism:
the totality of an organism's chemical reactions
Define metabolism:
the totality of an organism's chemical reactions
Define catabolic metabolism:
break down molecules and releases energy
Define anabolic metabolism
builds molecules and consumes energy
What is an enzyme?
a catalytic protein
what is a catalyst?
chemical agent that speeds up a reaction w/out being consumed by the reaction
What is the optimal temp in humans for enzymes?
37 degrees C
anaerobic respiration also known as
fermentation
2 types of fermentation
1. lactic acid

2. alcohol
what does a primary structure protein begin and end with
begins with: N terminus (amino acid)

ends with: C terminus (carboxyl)