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26 Cards in this Set

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what does the endocrine system do?
it is responsible for chemical regulation. stimuli may cause certain glands to secrete hormones which cause other parts of the body to respond
hormones
chemical messengers that cause other parts of the body to respond
what does the endocrine system include?
the endocrine glands and their hormones
ductless glands
the glands of the endocrine system that release hormones directly into the blood stream
target tissue
each hormone acts on a certain kind of tissue called target tissue
where is the pituitary gland and what hormone does it secrete?
at the base of the brain---growth hormone
what does the growth hormone do?
stimulates elongation of long bones of the body and affects metabolism
what happens if growth hormone is oversecreted or undersecreted?
over- giantism (childhood)
acromegaly (enlarge of body parts in adults)
under- dwarfism in children
what hormone does the thyroid gland secrete and where is it?
located in the neck---secretes thyroxin
what does thyroxin do?
regulates rate of metabolism--essential for normal physical and mental development
what happens it thyroxin os over in under secreted?
over-nervousness, weight loss
-under-in children- mental retardation and small size
goiter
enlargement of the thyroid gland caused by an iodine defficiency
location of parathroid gland and what it secretes
embedded in back of thyroid gland--secretes parathormone
what does parathormone do?
controls metabolism of calcium, necessary for normal nerve and muscle function, blood clotting, healthy bones and teeth
what happens when parathormone is undersecreted?
nerve disorders, brittle bones, clotting problems
what does adrenal secrete and where is it located?
located on top of each kidney---secretes cortisone and adrenaline
what does cortisone do?
regulates carbohydrate, protein, fat metabolism, promotes conversion of fats and proteins to glucose
what does adrenaline do?
raises blood sugar level and increases heartbeat and breathing rates
what happens when there is an over and undersecretion of cortisone?
oversecretion--Cushing's disease (high blood glucose levels, excess fat)
undersecretion- Addison's disease (low blood glucose level, weight loss)
what does adrenaline do?
raises blood sugar level and increases heartbeat and breathing rates
what happens when there is an undersecretion of adrenaline?
the inability to deal with stress
where is the islets of Langerhans located and what does it secrete?
located in the pancreas and secretes insulin and glucagon
what does insulin do?
stimulates glucose uptake by cells
what happens when there is an under and oversecretion of insulin?
over- low blood sugar
under-diabetes (high blood sugar)
what does glucagon do?
promotes conversion of glycogen to glucose
what happens when there is an oversecretion of glucagon?
high blood sugar