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25 Cards in this Set

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The Greeks
Book, Origin of species challeneged a world view that have been accepted for centuries.
Key classical Greek philosophers who influenced Western Culture were Plato and Aristotle
They opposed evolution however some greeks view fossils as evidence of a former life that had been wiped out.
Greek philosophers who influenced Western culture
Aristotle and Plato, opposed evolution
Aristotle
believed that all living forms could be arranged on a ladder (Scala Naturae) of increasing complexity with eveyr run taken with perfect, permanent speicies.
christian church incorperated his ideas that since the time of creation nothing has been different or destroyed.
Anaximander
made comments that were views as evolutionary. that first animals were fish who evolved into humans
dominant philosphy in 1700s
natural theology
natural theology
studying the adaptations of organisms as evidence that the creater had designed each sepecies for a purpose.
Carolus Linnaeus can be tied to this theology, he developed taxonomy, system for naming species and grouping them of increasingly complex categories
Fossils
relics or impressions of organisms from the past that have become mineralized in sedimentary rocks
Darwin's views were influenced by
fossils
Sedimentary rocks
form when mud and sand settle at the bottom of seas, lakes and oceans. New layers of sediment cover older ones creating layers of rock (strata)
Different fossils in the strata show that a succession of organisms have populated earth through time.
strata
layers and layers of rock created by new sediment settling over old ones.
Paleontology
study of fossils and developed by Georges cuvier, French anatomist
Georges Curvier
sudied fossils and docmuneted the succession of fossil species in the Paris Basin. he recognized that extinction had occured and published a list of 23 species that were no longer in existence. He examined Irish Elk, an ice age deer and determined that there was nothing else in the world that was like it and that extinction had occured.
instead of evolution it was catastrophism that local clood or drought had destroyed the species. He rejected theory of evolution and Lamarck's theory of inheritance of acquired characteristics
jean Baptiste de Lamarck
the first to suggest fossils were extinct creatures.
described a mcheansim of evolution called the inheritance of acquired characteristics
helped pave the way for Darwin by emphasizing the interactions between organisms and their enviornment.
inheritance of acquired characteristics
Lamarck created this
organisms by striving to survive in their enviornments acquire adaptations that allow them to survive. They pass these acquired traits on to their offspring
parts of the body that were used to cope with the enviorn. becamse larger and stronger while those not needed became vestigial or disappeared. These modifications could be passed on to offspring. Ex. Giraffe
transformational evolution
invidivdual organisms transform their phenotypes to produce evolution
Lamarck's theory was an attempt to explain both the fossil record and the current diversity of life however there are things that dont add up
1. little or no evidence suggests that Lamarckian evolution really works
2. individuals do not evolve, populations do.
Variational theory
Darwin's theory that contrasted Lamarck's transformational theory.
evolution is observed at the level of the population. individuals possess distinct genotypes and phenotypes that selective forces can act upon to cause evolution
James hutton
proposed the thoery of gradualism in contrast to cuvier's catastrophism. Diversity o fEarth's land forms (canyons, mountains) and geologic change could be explained by mchenaisms that are slow and continuous
Charles lyell
expanded up on Hutton theory and devloped what can be called the theory of uniformitarianism. the laws of physica dn chemistry are the same throughout time, so past geological venets occured by natural processes and occured at rates observed today.
Hutton and Lyell
can predict future changes in enviorn. They also say that Eath must be millions of years old not a few thousand. Earth's geological prcesses (mountain building and erosion) are slow and take many millions of years to occur. Thsi is different than theory of catastrohpism . But does not mean that it cannot occur.
their work had a strong influence on Darwin.
Vestigial structure
are common, ex. Human appendix, vomeronasal organs (used in other animal s to detect heromones), third eyelid, human baby with a tail, 13th rib.
Distribution of organism did not fit one center of creation
similar forms of life are found in various places and different forms of life are found in similar areas. ex. Cacti are present in both North and south american deserts but not in asian or austrailian deserts.
organisms in different parts of the world are most closely reltaed to organisms on the same continent compared to similar lookign organism on toher continents.
artificial selection
variation in domestic speicies.
humans chose specific individuals with desirable traits to survive and breed. This is easily and rapidly done
HMS Beagle
charles darwin in a 4 yr round the world voyage with John Henslow his teacher.
Darwin's knowledge and deduction on evoltuion
1. darwind id not first invent the idea of evolution. he heard it from Lamarck as well as other scientists
2. sustantial inherited variation exists in both natural and domesticated species.
3. views on over reporduction were influenced by an essay on human population by thomas Malthus. he said that much human suffering from disease, famine, war was the inescapable consequence of the potential for human populations to increase faster thant heir food supplies and other resources.
4. artificial selection easily occurs then natural selection should be capable of major modifications of speicies over hundreds or thousands of generation
5. his extensive field research ehlped him frame this theoyr of natural selection as a way for evolutionary change. He collected thousands of specimines.