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89 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
nutrients
usable foods
wastes
unusable foods
ingestion
taking food into the body
digestion
the process that changes food into a form that can be used by your body cells
intracellular digestion
inside the cell
extracellular digestion
outside the cell
mechnical digestion
food is physically broken down into small pieces--increases surface area and improves enzyme action
chemical digestion
complex food molecules are chemically changed into simpler molecules
digestive enzymes
help break down foods chemically
Enzymatic hydrolysis breakdown of carbohydrates
simple sugar
breakdown of lipids
fatty acid and glycerol
proteins
amino acids
alimentary canal/gastrointestinal (GI) tract
tube of the digestive system that begins in the mouth and ends with the anus--as food passes through, special areas of the tube mechanically and chemically change food
peristalsis
slow, rhythmic, muscular contractions that move food in one direction through the alimentary canal
where are the nutrients passed to after chemical digestion?
to all the cells in the body
oral cavity
the mouth
salivary glands
located in the oral cavity and secrety saliva
what kind of digestion happens in the mouth?
chemical AND mechanical
saliva
has mucus that moistens food making it easier to swallow and also contains the enzyme ptyalin
ptyalin
starts the chemical digestion of starches
taste buds
little groups of cells located in the tongue and roof of the mouth
4 kinds of taste buds
sweet, sour, bitter, and salty
incisors and canines
teeth for cutting and tearing
premolars and molars
crushing and grinding
esophagus/gullet
tube that moves food from the mouth to the stomach by peristalis
-no chemical digestion begins in the esophagus-chemical action of saliva continues until food reaches the stomach
-esophagus produces mucus
mucus
lubricates (moistens) food so that it slides down the esophagus more easily
stomach
muscular, J-shaped organ
how does mechanical digestion occur in the stomach
when stomach muscles turn and mash food
chyme
when food becomes a thick, soupy mixture
chemical digestion in the stomach
glands in the stomach lining secrete gastric juice and hydrochloric acid
pepsin
an enzyme in gastric juice that begins the chemical digestion of protein.
rennin
an enzyme that begins the chemical digestion of milk protein
hydrocholoric acid
destroys bacteria normally present in food and provides the proper pH for enzyme action
small intestine
where partly digested food goes from the stomach; here, food digestion is completed and digested nutrients are absorbed into the bloodstream
where does most chemical digestion take place?
in the small intestine, not the stomach
bile
made by the liver; prepares fats and oils for enzyme digestion by breaking them down into smaller pieces
how bile is helpful
It increases the surface area of fat particles, thereby speeding up fat digestion by enzymes caled lipases
detergent effect
action of bile
gall bladder
where bile is stored
bile duct
how bile enters the small intestine
villi
tiny finger-like projections that line the inside of the small intestine. They increase the surface area of the small intestine for the absorption of the end products of digestion.
How are the end products absobred by the villi of the small intestines?
the process of diffusion
large intestine/colon
where undigested foods (wastes) pass from the small intestine
what happens inside the large intestine?
water, some vitamins, and minerals are absorbed into the blood steam.
Feces
Remaining undigested foods after the other wastes are absorbed into the blood stream
rectum
the lower end of the large intestine where the feces are stored
anus
where feces are eliminated from the body
egestion
indigestible food is eliminated from the body
why are certain foods not digestible?
1) specific enzymes are not present
2) not the best hydrolysis condtions between the food and the enzyme
end products
final compounds formed by digestion
-small and checmically simple so that they can be absorbed and used by the body's cells
what are produced from the complete digestion of fats and oils
simple sugars and fatty acids
what are the result of protein digestion
amino acids
where do the end products go?
simple sugars and amino acids pass into blood capilarries
-fatty acids and glycerol go into the lymph system
ulcer
open, painful sore in the stomach lining because there is not enough mucus, secreted by cells lining the stomach and helps to protest the stomach lining from hydrocholoric acid, or there is too much acid
-can bleed and sometimes eat through the stomach wall
-can be tretely with diet and medication
tooth decay
causes by mouth bacteria
appendicitis
an infection of the appendix--treatment=removal of the appendix b/c if its not removed it can burst and infect the surrounding membranes and organs possibly leading to death
appendix
SMALL FINGER LIKE PROJECTION LOCated near the beginning of the large intestine--has no known function in humans
diarrhea
condition when the feces do not remain in the large intestine long enoguh for the water to be abosrbed--can causes dehydration
constipation
a condition where the feces remain in the colon too long--causes by too little biger or water in the diet
excretion
the removal of wastes of cell activities from the body
Difference between wastes of excretion and egestion
excretion-liquids and gases
egestion-solids
metabolic wastes
wastes produced by life activities (metabolism)
examples of metabolic wastes and how they are produced
-carbon dioxide-formed during aerobic respiration
-water-aerobic respiration and other cell activities
-urea-nitrogen waste from breakdown of amino acids produced during protein synthesis
-mineral salts-breakdown of various compounds in the cell
what is the role of blood in excretion?
wastes of excretion leave body cells and are secreted into intercellular fluid. wastes pass from intercellular fluid into the blood plasma by diffusion. The blood plasma transports these excretions to excretory organs that remove them from the body.
excretory system
removes cellular wastes from the body, whivh helps maintain a proper balance of body chemicals.
Organs of excretory system
skin, lungs, urinary system, and liver
epidermis
outer layer of skin
dermis
inner layer of skin
sweat glands
excrete perspirtation through skin pores
perspiration
made up of nitrogenous wastes (urea), salts, and water.
how does the skin control body temperature?
when perspiration evaporates from the skin, heat is absorbed from skin cells. This absorption of heat lowers body temperature, which results in cooling the body.
lungs role in excretion
excrete carbon dioxide and water vapor by diffusion and exhalation
urinary system
contains kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and the urethra
kidneys
bean-shaped organs that lie along the back wall of the abdomen. It acts as filters in the removal of urea, and excess water and salts from the blood. Besides wastes, useful substances diffuse out of the flood into the kidney. Also, useful substances are returned to the blood before the blood leaves the kidney
nephrons
masses of microscopic subunits that make up each kidney
urine
excretions made of urea and water sent by the kidney
ureter
tube that sends urine to the urinary bladder
urinary bladder
sac-like, where urine is stored temporarily
urethra
through which urine leaves the body
largest internal organ in the body
liver
liver functions
1) produces urea, nitrogenous waste, by breaking down excess amino acids
2) removes poisions, such as alcohol, from the blood
3) stores extra sugar in the form of animal starch (glycogen)
4) changes glycogen into glucose and secretes it back into the bloodstream when the body needs energy
kidney stone
collection of solid material that may block the kidneys, ureters, or bladder
gout
disease associated with the production and deposition of uric acid crystals in joints. Produces symptoms similar to arthritis
uremia
urea and other wastes are not filtered out of the flood. The body cells become poisoned and there is urine in the blood
blackheads and acne
clogging of skin pores
cirrhosis of the liver
disease caused by damade to cells. Leads to type of high blood pressure. Most common cause is alcohol-Hepatitis, inflamation of the liver, can also lead to this disease. Discovered by routine medical examinations or lood tests. Later symptoms are yellow skin, fluid collection in tissues, mental confusion, and vomitting blood. Treated by eliminating alcoholic beverages or liver transplant
deamination
the chemical breakdown of amino acids
bowman's capsule
part of the kidney where many soluble blood components (such as water, salts, urea, and soluble nutrients) are absorbed from the blood by diffusion
glomerulus
capillary network in the kidney that are branched off off two arteries that carry blood to the kidney for filtering