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43 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
bacteria and archea consist of ______ cells
what are features all cells have in common?
plasma membrane, DNA, ribosomes
_____ cells are, on average, 10x bigger than _____ cells
eukaryotic ; prokaryotic
The DNA of a prokaryotic cell is coiled into a ____ ____
nucleoid region (but no membrane surrounds the DNA)
Describe a general prokaryotic cell.
- PLASMA MEMBRANE outside of n. region
- outside of the membrane, a rigid CELL WALL, which protects the cell and helps maintain its shape
- Outside cell well, a sticky CAPSULE, which further protects the cell surface and helps glue the prokaryote to surfaces
- On outside: Short projections called PILI, which help attach prokaryotes to surfaces
- On outside: Long projections called FLAGELLA, which propel the cell through its liquid environment
What are two advantages of the endomembrane system of eukaryotic cells?
1) different environments can be maintained within a cell, so that many different chemical activities (known collectively as CELLULAR METABOLISM) can occur
- Add to cell's total membrane area, providing surfaces and enzymes essential to metabolic processes
Membranous organelles found only in plant cells
central vacuoles and chloroplasts
Membranous organelles found only in animal cells
Membranous organelles found in both animal and plant cells
Rough and Smoothe ER, nuclear envelope, golgi apparatus, plasma membrane, mitrochondria, peroxisome
Nonmembranous organelles found only in plant cells
cell wall
Nonmembranous organelles found only in animal cells
centriole, flagellum
Nonmembranous organelles found in both animal and plant cells
ribosomes, cytoskeleton
Functions of nucleus
DNA synthesis, RNA synthesis, assembly of ribosomal subunits (in nucleoli)
Functions of ribosomes
Polypeptide (protein) synthesis
Functions of RER
Synthesis of membrance proteins, secretory proteins, and hydrolytic enzymes; formation of transport vesicles
Lipid synthesis; carbohydrate metabolism in liver cells; detoxification in liver cells; calcium ion storage
Golgi apparatus
modification, temporary storage, and transport of macromolecules; formation of lysosomes and transport vesicles
digestion of nutrients, bacteria, and damaged organelles; destruction of certain cells during embryonic development
diverse metabolic processes, with breakdown of H2O2 by-product
digestion (like lysosomes); storage of chemicals; cell enlargement; water balance
conversion of light energy to chemical energy of sugars
conversion of chemical energy of food to chemical energy of ATP
maintenance of cell shape; anchorage for organelles; movement of organelles within cells; cell movement; mechanical transmission of signals from exterior to interior of cell
cell walls
maintenance of cell shape and skeletal support; surface protection; binding of cells in tissues
extracellular matrix
binding of cells in tissues; surface protection; regulation of cellular activites
cell junctions
communication b/w cells; binding of cells in tissues
What are the long fibers found inside a cell's nucleus called?
chromatin. each fiber is a chromosome.
describe the nuclear envelope.
A double membrane perforated with pores that control the flow of materials into and out of the nucleus.
describe the nucleolus.
A prominent structure that produces building blocks of ribosomes, which exit the nucleus via nuclear pores.
what organelles constitude the endomembrance system?
SER, RER, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, and vacuoles
What is the SER called smooth?
It has no ribosomes on its surface.
Why are calcium ions necessary in muscle tissue?
Calcium ions help with muscle contraction.
Describe the synthesis, modification, and packaging of a protein in the RER.
1) Polypeptide is synthesized by a ribosome attached to RER, passes into the ER, and folds into its 3D shape
2) Short chains of sugars are often linked to polypeptide, making it a glycoprotein
3) ER packages molecule in a transport vescile
4) Vesicle buds off from ER and travels to Golgi for further processing
True or false: Golgi sacs are interconnected like ER sacks
How is the Golgi apparatus like a post office?
It matks and sort molecules into different batches for different destinations
What are contractile vacuoles?
Vacuoles with spokes that expel excess water from a cell so the cell doesn't burst.
name the three types of fibers that make up the cytoskeleton.
- microfilaments
- intermediate filaments
- microtubules
What is the common structure of cilia and flagella?
9 + 2 pattern (nine microtubule doublets surrounds a central pair of microtubules) connected to an anchoring structure (identical to a centriole)
How do microtubules bend?
Using energy from ATP, dynein arms attached to each microtubule doublet grab an adjacent doublet and walk along it. The movements of the dynein arms cause the microtubules to bend.
Cell walls of plants are typically thinner/thicker than plasma membranes.
Cell walls are usu. 10 to 100 times thicker than plasma membrances, and are multilayered.
Channels between adjacent plant cells that form a circulatory and communication system connecting the cells in plant tissues. Through plasmodesmata, the cells of plant tissue share water, nourishment, and chemical messages.
extracellular matrix
A sticky layer of glycoproteins found in animal cells that helps hold cells together in tissues and can have protective and supportive functions. helps regulate cell behavior.
Name and describe three types of cell junctions that connect adjacent cells in animal tissue.
1) Tight junctions - bind cells v. tightly together, forming a leakproof sheet (like in digestive tract)
2) Anchoring junctions rivet cells together with cytoskeletal fibers, forming strong sheets. Are common in tissues subject to stretching or mechanical stress, such as the skin and heart muscle.
3) Gap junctions -- channels with function similar to that of plasmodesmata 00 allow molecules to flow b/w neighbooring cells. In heart muscle (help coordinate contracts of heart).