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32 Cards in this Set

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conversion of light energy to chemical energy stored in glucose or other organic compounds; occurs in plants, algae, and other prokaryotes
Organism that does not need to feed on other organisms or their by-products to obtain organic food molecules. They acquire organic food molecules from the sun or by oxidizing inorganic substances into organic ones.
green pigment within the chloroplasts of plants
ground tissue of leaf; sandwiched between the upper and lower epidermis used in photosynthesis
microscopic pore surrounded by guard cells in the epidermis of leaves and stems that allow for gas exchange between the interior of the cell and the environment
fluid of the chloroplast outside the thylakoid membrane that synthesizes organic compounds from H2O and CO2
flattened membranous sac in the chloroplast that converts light energy to chemical energy
Light Reactions
steps in photosynthesis that occur in the thylakoid membrane of the chloroplast converting light energy to chemical energy of ATP and NADPH with evolution of oxygen
Calvin Cycle
2nd stage of the photosynthesis that involves the atmospheric CO2 fixation and fixed carbon into carbohydrate
temporarily accepts energized electrons produced by the light reactions of photosynthesis
process of making ATP from ADP and a phosphate by a proton motive force generated by the thylakoid membrane during light reactions
Carbon fixation
Incorporation of Carbon from CO2 into an organic compound by autotrophs
distance between the crests of waves
Electromagnetic spectrum
entire spectrum of radiation ranging in wavelengths of less than a nm to more than a km
Visible light
portion of electromagnetic spectrum that can be seen with the unaided eye, wavelengths are between 380 to 750 nm
discrete amounts of light energy
instrument that measures the proportions of light of different wavelengths absorbed and transmitted by a pigment solution
Absorption Spectrum
range of pigment's ability to absorb various wavelengths of light
Chlorophyll a
blue-green photosynthetic pigment that participates directly in the light reactions
Chlorophyll b
yellow-green photosynthetic accessory pigment that transfers energy to chlorophyll a
Action spectrum
graph that depicts the relative effect of the wavelengths of radiation in driving a particular process
accessory pigment either yellow or orange, absorbs wavelengths of light that chloroplast cannot and therefore broadens the spectrum of colors that can drive photosynthesis
contains 2 light-capturing units in a chloroplast's thylakoid membrane; has 2 molecules of P700 chlorophyll a and P680 chlorophyll a at its reaction center
Light-harvesting complex
complex of proteins that are associated wigh pigment molecules that capture light energy and transfers it to the reaction-center pigments in a photosystem
Reaction center
located in a photosystem, complex triggers light reactions of photosynthesis. complex of proteins associated with 2 special chlorophyll a molecules and a primary electron acceptor.
Primary electron acceptor
specialized molecule sharing the reaction center with the pair of reaction-center chlorophyll a molecules; it accepts an electron from one of these 2 chlorophylls
Photosystem I
one of 2 light-capturing units in a chloroplast's thylakoid membrane; it has 2 molecules of P700 chlorophyll a at its reaction center
Photosystem II
One of 2 light-capturing units in a chloroplast's thylakoid membrane; it has 2 molecules of P680 chlorophyll a at its reaction center
Noncyclic electron flow
route of electron flow during light reactions of photosynthesis; involves both photosystems and produces ATP, NADPH, and oxygen. The net electron flow is from water to NADP+
Cyclic electron flow
route of electron flow that involves only photosystem I and produces ATP but not NADPH or oxygen
a carbohydrate produced directly from the Calvin cycle
ribulose carboxylase, enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the Calvin cycle by adding CO2 to ribulose bisphosphate