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45 Cards in this Set

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sense
when brain sends info from the outside world
stimulus
anything inside or outside the body that causes a response in nerves, tissue, etc.
another name for sensation
perception
sensation
conscious awareness of stimuli received by receptors
2 types of senses
general senses
special senses
general senses
widely distributed. include touch pressure pain temperature and vibration and itch
special senses
smell taste sight hearing balance
-have a specialized structure to detect
receptors
sensory nerve endings in skin/tissues that respond to stimuli by making and action potential
mechanoreceptors
respond to mechanical stimuli (bending)
chemoreceptors
respond to chemicals such as odor molecules
photoreceptors
respond to light
thermoreceptors
respond to temperature
nociceptors
respond to pain
free nerve endings
simplest nerve ending. in all parts of body. respond to pain, temp, itch, and movement
2 types of free nerve endings
cold receptors and warm receptors
cold receptors
respond to decrease in temp
warm receptors
respond to increase in temp
merkel's disks
detect light touch and pressure
hair follicle receptors
respond to light touch but only tells a general area
meissner's corpuscles
can tell exact location of light touch
(tactile sensation)
ruffini's end organs
continuous pressure in skin
pacinian corpuscles
deep pressure, vibration in tendons and joints
pain
sensation of unpleasant perceptual and emotional experiences
2 TYPES OF PAIN
sharp vs. dull
sharp pain
pricking, cutting, fast A.P.
dull pain
aching, burning, slow A.P.
3 ways to reduce pain
local anesthetics, general anesthetics, medicine
local anesthesia
chemicals injected near a sensory nerve
general anesthesia
consciousness inibited by chemicals affecting reticular formation
referred pain
pain in a different location of the body than the stimulus
example of referred pain
heart attack
how are 5 senses stimulated
chemical interaction with sensory receptors
smell /taste responds to:
chemicals
vision responds to
light
balance responds to
gravity
hearing responds to
sound waves
olfaction
sense of smell; response to odors entering the nasal cavity
steps of smelling
odor molecule from air enters the nasal cavity

the molecule dissolves in the fluid in the nasal cavity and go to olfactory receptors

molecule and receptor together causes depolarization in olfactory neuron(A.P. forms)
how many molecules can attach to a receptor at once?
one
pathway of an A.P.
olfactory neuron axons

olfactory nerves

(pass through cribiform plate)

enter olfactory bulb

synapse with association neurons

synapse with olfactory tracts

tracts terminate into olfactory cortex
(temporal/frontal lobes)
taste buds
detect taste stimuli found on papillae.
taste and smell relation
nasal cavity opens up to the back of the throat
interior of taste bud has how many cells
40
each taste cell has:
taste hairs that extend to the taste pore
4 taste sensations of tongue
bitter, sour, salty, sweet