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34 Cards in this Set

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What is leptin?
A protein hormone produced by fat to signal sufficient calorie intake.
Mutations in _______ gene can cause obesity in mice and humans.
leptin
Who described patterns of inheritance in pea plants?
Gregor Mendel
What is Mendel's Law of Segregration?
Allele pairs seperate during gamete formation.
What is Mende's Law of Independant Assortment?
Each allele pair seperates independantly of each other peairs during gamete formation.
What is a diploid cell?
A cell containing 2 homologous sets of chromosomes, one set inherited from each parent. 46 chromosomes.
What is a halploid cell?
A cell containing a single set of chromosomes. 23 chromosomes.
What is a genotype?
Refers to an individual's genes.
What are alleles?
Alternate forms of genes.
What is an example of a homozygous dominant gene?
EE
What is an example of a homozygous recessive gene?
ee
What is an example of a heterozygous gene?
Ee
What is a phenotype?
Refers to an individual's physical appearance.
Bad genes make abnormal _______.
proteins
What is a dominant allele?
An allele that masks the expression of another allele. (A,B,C...)
What is a recessive allele?
An allele that is being masked by a dominant allele. (a, b, c...)
What is an autosomal recessive disorder and what are some examples?
Disorder is on the recessive allele. Person must have 2 recessive alleles to be affected. A person with a dominant and recessive allele is a carrier. EX/ Sickle Cell Anemia, Cystic Fybrosis, PKU.
What is Phenylketonuria (PKU)?
Inability to metabolize phenylalanine.
What is an autosomal dominant disorder? What are some examples?
A disorder that is on the dominant allele. A person with one or two dominant alleles will be affected. A person with two recessive alleles will not be affected. EX/ Huntington's Disease, Myopia, Cleft Chin, Brachydactyly, Marfan's Syndrome.
What is an X-Linked or Sex-Linked Recessive Disorder? What is an example?
Disorder on the recessive allele on the X chromosome. Males are affected more than females. EX/ Colorblindness, Duchene muscular dystrophy, Hemophillia
What is incomplete dominance? What is an example?
Each genotype has a specific phenotype. EX/ Wavy hair.
What is a sex-influenced trait?
The trait is expressed differently in the two sexes, but not controlled by alleles on the sex chromosomes. Males, having the Y chromosome, is enough to influence the effect of male pattern baldness.
What is Polygenic Inheritance? What are some examples?
One trait is governed by two of more sets of alleles. EX/ Skin color, height, IQ, eye color...
What is a karyotype?
The particular array of chromosomes that an individual posseses, A display of the metaphase chromosomes of a cell, arranged by size and shape.
What is a sex chromosomal syndrome/ nondisjunction of sex chromosomes? What are some examples?
During meiosis, the sex chromosomes fail to seperate correctly, abnormal sex chromosome number. EX/ Turner Syndrome, Klinefelter Syndrome, Metafemale, Jacobs Syndrome.
Somatic cells are _____ and have _____chromosomes in humans.
diploid, 46
Sex cells or gametes are ____ and have _____ chromosomes in humans.
haploid, 23
Genetic vatiation can be a product of:
mutation and sexual reproduction
Haploid gametes are formed through:
meiosis
In sexual reproduction, the chromosome number is reduced during:
meiosis
In sexual reproduction, gametes are:
haploid
In sexual reproduction, the zygote is:
diploid
What is Dystrophin?
a protein found in normal muscle that is missing in muscle affected by some forms of muscular dystrophy.
What is a Somatic cell?
Any cell in a multicellular organism except a sperm or egg cell that develops into a sperm or egg.