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54 Cards in this Set

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chorionoc villi sampling
where the doctor counts the chromosomes
telophase
chromosomes uncoil, new nuclear envolope forms, spindle fibers break down. MITOSIS IS COMPLETE!!!!!:)
crossing over
in the beginning of meiosis the pair of chromosomes are next to each other then exchange reciprical segments of dna.
gene
segment of DNA that transmits info from parent to offspring
centromere
The protein disk at The point where the two chromatids are atatched.
microtubules extend which way?
toward opposite poles of the cell.
the two copis of each chromose are called________
homologous chrommosomes
duplication
where the chromosome attaches to the homologues which carries 2 copies of that gene
deletion
when chromosomes break there is an absnce in the division and certain genes are lost
metaphase
chromosomes go to the center of the cell they are then held in place by the microtubles attached to the kineticore.
prophase
chromosomes begin to condense and become visible. Nuclear envelope begins to break down and the spindle fibers become visible.
Trisomy
when a diploid cell has an extra chromosome
karyotope
collection of chromosomes in an individuals cells.
what is down syndrome technically?
it is a trisomy of diploid number 21
anaphase
two chromatids seperate when the centromer splits. each cromatid is now a chromosome move toward opposite poles
meiosis
when the number of chromosomes is halved in cell division
cytokenisis
splits the two cells with a protein belt
hapliod cell is differant from the diploid cell how?
only one hmologue is found in each cell instead of two.
diploid
when a cell has 2 homologues of each chromosome
in plants meiois often leads to_______
spores, which lead to the production of gametes
meiosis 1
homologues seperate into 2 cells.
how many homologues do you get from each parent?
1
chromosome
rod shaped structure that forms when a single DNA molecule and its offiliated particle are coild before cell division
meiosis 2
th2 2 cromatids in of each chromosome seperate into 2 haploid cells.
how many chromosomes does the human cell have?
23 which make 46 chromatids
explain kineticore
when the chromosomes are condensing more microtubuals come from the centromere this area is called the kineticore and it is a platform that assemble the microtubuals.
metaphase 1 meiosis
homologues are moved bby spindle fibers to "the equator" of the cell.
what determines a boy? a girl?
presence of y, no presnece of y
Meiosis 11
chromosomes dont replicate but divede at the centromeres,(difference from mitosis**)
Prophase 1 Meiosis
homologues pair up and cross-over
skipping replication
because there is only one replication but 2 divisions in meiosis the number of chromosomes is halved.
anaphase1 meiosis
homologues seperate the chromosomes are pulles apart to the opposite poles. DIFF: the chromosomes don't seperate at the centromeres therefore nondisjuction can occur
what causes trisomy?
nondisjunction- 1 new cell recieves 2 chromosomes and the other recieves none:(
chromatids
form prior to cell division when the DNA molecule duplicates itself to insure that the 1st and 2nd are identical.
telophase1
chromosomes gather at the pole, cytoplasm splits them but now there are half as many chromosomes in the cell as in the original. giving this the name Reduction division
translocation
the fragment grabs a nonhomologuous chromosome
sex chromosome
the chromosome that determine one sex x or y
G1
S
G2
M
C
cell growth
dna copied
growth and preperation
mitosis
cytokenesis
gametes refer to what?
the use of egg cells for reproduction
anaphase2
centromeres divide chromosomes move two opposite poles.

Meiosis 2 is followed by cytokenisis where the new enveloes form
binary fission
a sexual reproduction that causes identicaloffspring
crossing over can form what?
genetic recombinations or making new combinations of the genes when they trade. then they dont have identical DNA anymore.
summarize cell cycle.
G1-> S->G2-> M-> C
what happens during binary fission
a bacterium makes a copy of its DNA and formd a new membrane and cell wll. then the cell splits into two
The life of a eukaryotic cell is traditionally diagramed as what?
cell cycle: a repeating sequence of growth an division through which many kinds of eukaryotic cells pass.
cytokinesis
when the cytoplasm divides
haploid cells come together to form what?
a diploid zygote or a fertilized egg
what is DNA?
a long molecule that controls functions and heredity. It coils tightly and duplicates to form chromosomes before cell division.
the gsgmc is all the what?
Interphase
amneosentesis__
amnioticwhere a doctor removes fluid from a pregnant woman to make a karyotype
spindle fiber
the cable that helps m,ove the chromosomes apart and is made of microtubuals in the g2 phase these are reassmbled
true false, # of chromosomes in the cell is the same for all species
FALSE!!!!
mutations
changes in the genetic material.
inversion
old fragment reatatches to the new one in an inverse orientation