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34 Cards in this Set

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arteriosclerosis
A cardiovascular disease caused by the formation of hard plaques within the arteries.
atherosclerosis
A cardiovascular disease in which growths called plaques develop on the inner walls of the arteries, narrowing their inner diameters.
blood pressure
The hydrostatic force that blood exerts against the wall of a vessel.
blood vessel
A set of tubes through which the blood moves through the body.
capillary bed
A network of capillaries that infiltrate every organ and tissue in the body.
closed circulatory system
Circulatory systems in which blood is confined to vessels and is kept separate from the interstitial fluid
diaphragm
A sheet of muscle that forms the bottom wall of the thoracic cavity in mammals; active in ventilating the lungs.
diastole
The stage of the heart cycle in which the heart muscle is relaxed, allowing the chambers to fill with blood.
diastolic pressure
Blood pressure that remains between heart contractions.
electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG)
A record of the electrical impulses that travel through cardiac muscle during the heart cycle.
endothelium
The innermost, simple squamous layer of cells lining the blood vessels; the only constituent structure of capillaries
fibrin
The activated form of the blood-clotting protein fibrinogen, which aggregates into threads that form the fabric of the clot.
fibrinogen
The inactive form of the plasma protein that is converted to the active form fibrin, which aggregates into threads that form the framework of a blood clot.
gas exchange
The uptake of molecular oxygen from the environment and the discharge of carbon dioxide to the environment.
hemoglobin
An iron-containing protein in red blood cells that reversibly binds oxygen.
high-density lipoprotein (HDL)
A cholesterol-carrying particle in the blood, made up of cholesterol and other lipids surrounded by a single layer of phospholipids in which proteins are embedded. An HDL particle carries less cholesterol than a related lipoprotein, LDL, and may be correlated with a decreased risk of blood vessel blockage.
low-density lipoprotein (LDL)
A cholesterol-carrying particle in the blood, made up of cholesterol and other lipids surrounded by a single layer of phospholipids in which proteins are embedded. An LDL particle carries the blood correlate with a tendency to develop blocked blood vessels and heart disease.
lymph
The colorless fluid, derived from interstitial fluid, in the lymphatic system of vertebrate animals.
lymph node
Organs located along lymph vessels. They filter lymph and help attack viruses and bacteria.
pacemaker
A specialized region of the right atrium of the mammalian heart that sets the rate of contraction; also called the sinoatrial (SA) node.
plasma
The liquid matrix of blood in which the cells are suspended.
platelet
A small enucleated blood cell important in blood clotting; derived from large cells in the bone marrow.
pluripotent stem cell
A cell within bone marrow that is a progenitor for any kind of blood cell.
pulmonary circuit
The branch of the circulatory system that supplies the lungs.
pulse
The rhythmic stretching of the arteries caused by the pressure of blood forced through the arteries by contractions of the ventricles during systole.
red blood cell
A blood cell conaining hemoglobin, which transports O2. Also called erythrocyte.
residual volume
The amount of air that remains in the lungs after forcefully exhaling.
stroke volume
The amount of blood pumped by the left ventricle in each contraction.
systemic circulation
The branch of the circulatory system that supplies all body organs and then returns oxygen-poor blood to the right atrium via the veins.
systole
The stage of the heart cycle in which the heart muscle contracts and the chambers pump blood.
thrombus
A clump of platelets and fibrin that block the flow of blood through a blood vessel.
tidal volume
The volume of air an animal inhales and exhales with each breath.
vital capacity
The maximum volume of air that a respiratory system can inhale and exhale.
white blood cell
A blood cell that functions in defending the body against infections and cancer cells. Also called leukocyte.