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32 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
matter
anything that has mass and takes up space
elements
a pure substanc3 that cannot be broken down by ordinary chemical means
compounds
a substance that contains two or more different elements
trace element
element critical to health that makes up less than 0.01 percent of body mass
atom
smallest particle of an element
proton
subatomic particle with a single unit of positive electric charge (+). the mumber determines properties of the element
1amu
electron
subatomic particle with a single unit of negative electric charge (-)
Electron Clould in shells/orbitals (energy levels of electrons: 2,8,8)
can be energised into levels father away from the nucleus
are involved in creating bonds between atoms
are responsable for creating ions(electrically charged atoms)
neutron
subatomic particle that has no charge (is electrically neutral) locatedin the nucleus
nucleus
in an atom, the central core that contains protons and neutrons
atomic number
number of protons in an atom's nucleus(determines the properties of the element); is unique for each element [located on top of a periodic box]
isotope
one of several forms of an element, each containing the same number of protons in their atoms but a different number of neutrons
radioactive isotope
isotope in which the nucleus decays (breaks down) over time, giving off radiation in the form of matter and energy
atomic mass
the agerage number of protons and neutrons located at the bottom of a periotic box
ionic bonds
when to atoms collide, one electron is transferred from one atom to the other. the atoms then become ions, charged atoms, because the number protons and electrons is no longer equeal
covalent bonds
covalent bonds occur when atoms collide and share electrons(atoms=molicules) compounds in living things are held together with covalent bonds
isotope
one of several forms of an element, each containing the same number of protons in their atoms but a different number of neutrons
radioactive isotope
isotope in which the nucleus decays (breaks down) over time, giving off radiation in the form of matter and energy
atomic mass
the agerage number of protons and neutrons located at the bottom of a periotic box
ionic bonds
when to atoms collide, one electron is transferred from one atom to the other. the atoms then become ions, charged atoms, because the number protons and electrons is no longer equeal
covalent bonds
covalent bonds occur when atoms collide and share electrons(atoms=molicules) compounds in living things are held together with covalent bonds
chemical reaction
breaking of old and formation of new chemical bonds that result in new substances
molecule
two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds
ion
atom that has become electrically charged as a result of gaining or losing an electron
reactant
starting material for a chemical reaction
product
material created as a result of a chemical reaction
polar molecule
molecule in which opposite ends have opposite electric charges
hydrogen bond
bond created by the weak attraction of a slightly positive hydrogen atom to a slightly negative portion of another molecule
cohesion
tendency of molecules of the same kind to stick to one another
adhesion
attraction between unlike molecules
thermal energy
total amount of energy associated with the random movement of atoms and molecules in a sample of matter
temperature
measure of the average energy of random motion of particles in a substance
solution
uniform mixture of two or more substances