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18 Cards in this Set

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what is the relationshop between genes and chromosomes?
multiple genes per chromosome
genes - portions of chormosomes that code for traits
what is the relationship between DNA and nucleotides?
nucleotides = subunits of dna
how are 3 subcomponents of a nucleotide composed?
circle = phosphate
pentagon = deoxyrobose
rectangle = nitrogenous base
4 nirtogen bases
adenine + thymine
cytosine + guanine
how are nucleotides attached to each other within a strand?
covelent bonds - sugar and phosphate stranded together
how are nucleotides attached to eachother between strands?
hydrogen bonds - weaker than covelent
in what way are the 2 DNA strands oppisitly oriented?
anti-parallel, not alligned
1 side - phosphate to sugar
2nd side - sugar to phosphate
analogy to doulbe helix
twisted laddar, spiral staircase
funciton of DNA molecule
enconde info on how to build organisms and carry out organisms function
how is info encoded in DNA?
in order of nucleotides
how is code used to build structure and carry out function of organism?
makes sequence of amino acids --> sequence of proteins, carry out function
when is DNA replicated?
before the cell divides
what is the result of DNA replication?
2 identicle double helix's
what is semiconservative replication?
each helix - 1/2 new, 1/2 old
what are basic steps in DNA replication>
1.DNA helicase separates 2 strands of parental dna
2.DNA polymerase matches bases w/comlimentary
3.polymerase makes sugar phosphate backbone
how are base pairing mistakes repaired?
proof reading enzymes
3 ways DNA can be damaged
UV radiation/rays, exposure to toxic chemicals, gamma rays, replication errors
damaged dna -->
cancer, birth defects, aging