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49 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The specific location of the heart pacemaker is the
Sinoatrial node
What is the correct path of carbon dioxide moving out from the interior of the body?
Alveoli, bronchioles, bronchi, trachea, larynx, pharynx
The cardiac output is defined as the volume of blood pumped by the ___ each minute.
Left ventricle
When blood passes by body cells, the body cells
Take up oxygen and release carbon dioxide to the blood
The process of moving air in and out of the lungs is called
Breathing
When you hold your breath, which blood gas changes leads initially to the urge to breathe again?
Rising carbon dioxide concentration
What factor does not contribute to the flow of blood in veins?
Blood pressure generated by the heart
The liquid part of blood is called
Plasma
The most basic reason why animals need a continuous supply of oxygen is that
Without it, animals cannot obtain enough energy from their food
Heart attacks
Result from the death of cardiac muscle cells
The following are functions of the circulatory system:
A) Transporting nutrients
B) Transporting metabolic wastes
C) Transporting carbon dioxide
D) Transporting oxygen
Blood is pumped from the heart to the lungs by the
Right ventricle
Medullary breathing centers directly sense and respond to
Blood pH and carbon dioxide concentration
Which of the following is likely to have the lowest concentration of oxygen?
Warm salt water
During which phase of the heartbeat does the heart fill with blood?
Diastole
Oxygen is mostly transported through the body
Bound to hemoglobin
When you are breathing gently, exhalation results mainly from
The relaxation of the chest muscles and diaphragm
Blood clots are formed by platelets and which plasma protein?
Fibrinogen
The diameter of a capillary is about that of
A red blood cell
The main function of the AV node is to
Relay the signal to contract to the ventricles
What can contribute to high blood pressure?
Smoking
Which kind of vessel has the lowest blood velocity?
Capillary
In the countercurrent exchange systems of fish gills,
The blood and water flow in opposite directions
The ___ is a passageway shared by both food and air
Pharynx
Cells make up about what percentage of total blood volume?
45%
In humans, what kind of blood vessels have valves?
Veins
The chief advantage of exchanging gases in water is that
No energy need be expended to keep the exchange surface wet
An adult human’s red blood cells are formed in the
Bone marrow
As blood moves away from the heart, the volume of blood vessels
Decreases, the blood pressure drops, and the velocity of blood flow slows
Hydra do not need a circulatory system because they
Have very thin body walls
From the left ventricle, blood next flows to the
Aorta
Which of the following vessels transports oxygenated blood from the lung back to the heart?
Pulmonary vein
What is the most common cause of anemia?
Iron deficiency
Within the lungs, gas exchange occurs across
Alveoli
Which animal has single circulation?
Salmon
What isn't true about erythrocytes?
The main function of erythrocytes is to carry carbon dioxide
Which of these carries the most highly oxygenated blood?
Pulmonary veins
The main waste product of aerobic respiration is
Carbon dioxide
In a mammal, blood leaving the lungs next goes to
The heart
You press your ear to the chest of a small child to listen to its heart beating quickly. The sounds of the contractions that you hear are due to the sounds of the
Valves in the heart closing
In an open circulatory system,
There is no distinction between blood and interstitial fluid
Cancer of white blood cells is called
Leukemia
In mammals, blood returning from the head will pass through the ____ just before entering the right atrium.
Superior vena cava
Blood pressure is lowest in the
Venae cavae
Oxygen-poor blood is carried from the heart to the lungs via the
Pulmonary arteries
What name is given to the sheet of muscle that helps move air in and out of the lungs?
Diaphragm
The largest blood vessel in the human body is the
Aorta
The part of an animal where gas exchange occurs is called the
Respiratory surface
Which animal has a respiratory system that does not rely upon assistance from a circulatory system
Grasshopper