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41 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
activation energy
in a chemical reaction,the energy needed to force the electron shells of reactants together, before the formation of products
*energy needed to start reaction
active site
the region of an enzyme molecule that binds substrates and performs the catalytic function of the enzyme.
combines with phosphate to form atp
the major energy carrier in cells, The last two phosphate groups are attachewd by high-energy bonds
a substance that speeds up a chemical reaction without itself being permanently changed in teh process; loweres the activation energy of a reaction
chemical reaction
the process that forms and breaks chemical bonds that hold atoms together.
coupled reaction
a pair of reactions, one exergonic and one endergonic, that are linked together such that the energy produced by the exergonic raction provides the energy needed to drive the endergonic reaction.
electron carrier
a molecule that can reversibly gain ore lose electrons. elecron carriers generally accept high energy electrons produced during an exergonic reaction and donate the electrons to acceptor moledcules that use the energy to drive endergonic reactions.
endergonic reaction
pertaining to a chemical reaction thta requires an input of energy to proceed; an "uphill" reaction
the capacity to do work
energy carrier molecule
a molecule that stores energy in "high energy" chemical bonds and releases the energy to drive coupled endothermic reactions. In cells, atp, is the most common energy carrier molecule.
a measure of the amount of randomness and disorder in a system.
a protein catalyst that speeds up the rate of specific biological reactions.
exergonic reaction
pertaining to a chemical reaction that liberates energy (either as heat or in the form of increased entropy); a "downhill" reaction
first law of thermodynamics
the principle of physics that states w/ in any isolated system, energy can be neither created nor destroyed but can be converted from one form to another.
kinetic energy
the energy of movement; includes light, heat, mechanical movement, and electricity
metabolic pathway
a sequence of chemical reactions within a cell, in which the products of one reaction are teh reactants for the next reaction
the sum of all chemical reactions that occur withing a single cell or within all the cells of a multicellular organism
potential energy
"sotred" energy, normally c hemical energy or energy of position within a gravitational field
an atom or molecule that is formed from reactants in a chemical reaction
an atom or molecule that is used up in a chemical reaction to form a product.
second law of thermodynamics
the principle of physics that states that any change in an isolated system causes the quantity of concentrated, useful energy to decrease and the amount of randomness and disorder (entropy) to increase
the atoms or molecules that are the reactants for an enzyme catalyzed chemical reaction
bundle-sheath cell
one of a group of cells that surrounds the veings of plants
a pigment found in chloroplasts that captures light energy during photosynthesis; reflects green light
electron transport chain
a series of electron carrier molecules, found in the thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts, extract energy from electrons and generate atp or other energetic molecules.
light-harvesting complex
in phtosystems, the assembly of pigment molecules (chlorophyll and accessory pigments) that absorb light energy and transfer that energy to electrons
loosely packed cells beneath the epidermis of a leaf.
an energy carrier molecule produced by the light dependent reactions of photosynthesis; transfers energy to teh carbon fixing reactions (light independent) reactions.
a series of reactions in plants in which 02 replaces CO2 during the Calvin cycle, preventing carbon fixation, this wasteful process dominates when plants are foced to close their stomata to prevent water loss.
the complete series of chemical reactions in which the energy of light is used to synthesize high energy organic molecules, normally carbohydrates, from low-energy inorganic molecules, normally co2 and h20
in thylakoid membranes, a light harvesting complex and its associated electrion transport system
reaction center
in the light harvesting complex of a photosystem, the chlorophyll molecule to which light energy is transferred by the antenna molecules(light absorbing pigments); the captured energy ejects an electron from teh reaction centeer chrlophyll and the electron is transferred to the electron transport system.
an adjustable opening in the epidermis of a leaf, surrounded by a pair of guard cells, that regulates the diffusion of co2 and h2o into and out of the leaf.
the semifluid material inside chloroplasts in which the grana are embedded.
a disk-shaped, membraneous sac found in chloroplasts, the membranes of which contain the photosystems and atp synthesizing enzymes used in teh light dependent reactions of photosynthesis
spontaneous generation
the proposal that living organisms can aries from non living matter
an rna molecule that can catalyze certain chemical reactions, especially those involved in the synthesis and processing of rna itelf.
a small, hollow sphere formed from proteins or protein complexed with other compounds.
the hypothetical evolutionary precursor of living cells, consisting of a mixture of organic molecules within a membrane.
endosymbiont hypothesis
the hypothesis that certain organelles, especially chloroplasts and mitochondria, arose as mutually beneficial assocations b/w the ancestors of eukaryotic cells and captured bacteria that lived within the cytoplasm of the pre eukaryotic cells.