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53 Cards in this Set

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Feeding
selection, acquisistion, and ingestion of food
Ingestion
process of taking food into the digestive cavity
Digestion
process of breaking down food.
Peristalsis
waves of muscular contraction that push the food in one direction
Incisors
Canines
Molars
biting
tearing
crushing & grinding
Salivary amylase
chemical digestion of starch into sugar.
Bolus
lump of food traveling through esophagus
pharynx & esophagus
bolus travels through the pharynx and into the esophagus. Epiglottis closes the opening to the airway.
sphincter
ring of muscle that is the entrance to the stomach
Stomach lining
lined with epithelium that secretes mucus.
Parietal cells
in gastric glands in the stomach. These cells secrete hydrochloric acid.
Chief cells
in gastric glands secrete pepsinogen
Pepsinogen
when it comes into contact with acidic gastric juice in the stomach it is converted to pepsin
Pepsin
main digestive enzyme. It hydrolyzes proteins...converting them to short polypeptides.

it works best at pH 2.
Gastric juice
in the stomach consists of the combination HCl and pepsin/pepsinogen
chyme
partially digested food from the stomach
Digestion in the stomach
-Proteins are enzymatically converted to polypeptides.
-breakdown of starch stops as salivary amylase is inactivated by the acidic pH of the stomach
stomach ---> small intestine
-peristaltic waves release chyme in spurts out of the stomach and into the small intestine. through the pylorus
Pyloric sphincter
the stomach exit and small intestine opening
small intestine
Digestion is completed here. Nutrients are absorbed thru its walls.
3 regions of the small intestine
duodenum
jejunum
ileum
Duodenum
-most chemical digestion takes place here.
-Bile and enzymes are released here to act on the chyme
-the epithelial cells in its lining produces enzymes catalyzes the final major nutrients
Intestinal villi
-lining of small intestine has millions of these
-increase the surface area of the small intestine for digestion and absorption of nutrients.
-Further there are microvilli making the intestinal surface more expanded
LIVER
-secretes bile
-helps maintain homeostasis by removing or adding nutrients to the blood.
-stores iron and vitamins
-detoxifies alcohol and other drugs and poisons
Bile
-important in the mechanical digestion of fats
-consists of water, bile salts, bile pigments, and cholesterol.
-emulsifies fats.
-does not enzymatically digest food
Liver and maintaining homeostasis
-Converts excess glucose to glycogen and stores it.
-converts excess amino acids to fatty acids and urea.
Emulsification
bile breaks down large fat globules into smaller fat droplets that can be more easily attacked by lipases.
Lipases
fat-digesting enzymes
Gall bladder
stores and concentrates bile. It releases bile into the duodenum as needed.
Pancreas
-secretes both digestive enzymes & hormones that help regulate the level of glucose in the blood.
-enzymes: trypsin & chymotrypsin
Trypsin & chymotrypsin
digest polypeptides to dipeptides
Pancreatic lipase
degrades fats
Pancreatic amylase
breaks down almost all types of carbohydrates except cellulose...to disaccharides
RNAase & DNAase
In pancreas.
Split nucleic acids to free nucleotides
bicarbonate
-pancreas secretes it into the duodenum.
-raises the pH of the chyme to 8.
Carbohydrate digestion
Mouth & Small intestine
Carb digestion in the mouth
Salivary glands
Salivary amylase
Breaks down polysaccharides into maltose and smaller polysaccharides
Carb digestion in the small intestine
-Pancreatic amylase breaks down undigested polysaccharides into maltose + disaccharides
-In the lining of the duodenum (maltase, sucrase, lactase) help hydrolyze maltose, sucrose and lactose to their monosaccharides.
Protein digestion
stomach & small intestine
Protein digestion in the stomach
Gastric glands
Pepsin help break down proteins into short polypeptides
Protein digestion in the small intestine
-In the pancreas trypsin & chymotrypsin help hyrdolyze polypeptides into shorter peptides and dipeptides.
-In the lining of the duodenum peptidases and dipeptidases break small polypeptides and peptides into amino acids
Lipid digestion
in Small intestine
Lipid digestion in the small intestine
-In the liver, bile salts break down globs of fats into emulsified fat droplets
-In the pancreas, pancreatic lipase breaks down emulsified fat droplets into fatty acids + glycerol
Nerves & hormones regulating digestion
-salivary gland secretion is controlled by the nervous system
-secretion of digestive juices is regulated by both nerves & hormones
-sensing food causes the brain to send neural signals to the gastric glands to secrete HCl and pepsin.
-when food enters the stomach the medulla sends messages to endocrine cells in the stomach wall that secrete the hormone gastrin. This stimulates the stomach to release gastric juices.
Jejunum & ileum
part of small intestine. The absorbtion of food monomers occurs at the intestinal villi.
nutrients & blood
A nutrient molecule has to pass thru an epithelial lining of the intestine.
Liver and circulation
-Amino acids and glucose are transported directly to the liver by the hepatic portal vein.
-Certain toxic substances are released into the liver
Products of lipid digestion
-Free fatty acids & monoglycerides enter an epithelial cell and they are reassembled in2 triglycerides in the smooth ER.
-The triglycerides with cholesterol & phospholipids are packaged in2 chlyomicrons.
-The chlyomicrons enter the blood
chylomicrons
-triglycerides + cholesterol + phospholipids
-protein-covered fat droplets
Cecum
blind pouch connecting the small intestine to the big one. The appendix projects from the end of it.
Colon
cecum to the rectum
Large intestine
cecum. ascending colon. transvese colon. descending colon. sigmoid colon. rectum. anus.
Fiber
is a type of cellulose that stimulates peristalsis.