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25 Cards in this Set

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sex chromosome
the 2 unmatched chromosomes (females have XX, males have XY)
nucleotide
1 of the 4 nitrogen-containing bases that helps make up DNA: A,T,G,C
autosome
the other homologous chromosomes (as in the ones besides the 2 sex chromosomes)
sex-linked trait
a trat that controlled by a gene found of the sex chromosomes (ex: color blindness)
transcription
the copying of the genetic message of DNA into a molecule of RNA
crossing-over
segments of homologous chromatids are exchanged during meiosis; the offspring may then have a different phenotype from the parents
helix
the shape of DNA
color blindness
a condition in which the individual cannot perceive certain colors, usually red and green; females rarely suffer from it but may be carriers (have it on one X chromosome while the other X is normal), so much more males suffer from it
tRNA
brings a certain amino acid to a certain place specified by the mRNA
mRNA
copies the genetic sequence of DNA and transcribes it into RNA
linkage group
genes on the same chromosome are said to be linked, and there is one linkage group per chromosome pair
codon
group of 3 bases in mRNA that specifies an amino acid
translation
the process by which the information coded in RNA is used for the assembly of a particular amino acid sequence; protein synthesis
multiple-gene inheritance
when 2 or more independent genes affect one characteristic (ex: human height)
intron
a section of DNA that does NOT code for amino acids of a protein
operon
in prokaryotes, such as bacteria, an operon consists of the promoter, the operator, and their associated structural genes
exon
a segment of DNA that codes for amino acids that will become part of a protein
homeotic gene
genes that control key events in the development of a fruit fly by switching other genes on and off
anticodon
sequence of 3 bases in tRNA that are the complemets of the mRNA codon
RNA
single-stranded; bases: A,U,G,C; the sugar in it is ribose; it can travel out of the nucleus; it acts as a messenger
deoxyribose
the sugar that is found in DNA
enhancer
a section of DNA that controls the access of enzymes to their promoters
oncogenes
genes that cause some kinds of cancer; they're present in most cells but are usually switched off
allele
versions of a gene
gene
a section of DNA that codes for a certain trait