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46 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
root system functions
anchor, absorb, store sugar, transport to shoots, hormones
shoot system fucntions
photosynthesis, transport (b/t leaves, flowers, fruits, roots), reproduction, hormone synthesis
two types of flowering plants
monocots: seeds w/ 1 leaf (grasses, lilies, orchids)
dicots: seeds w/ 2 leaves (branching, tree, bushes)
two cell types
meristem: undifferentiated, cell division, keep plant growing
differentiated: stable parts, cells w/ job
meristem cells
apical: located at end of roots and shoots
lateral: sides of roots and shoots
two forms of plant growth
primary and secondary
primary growth
division of apical meristem cells, followed by differentiation of daughter cells, growth in LENGTH AND DEPTH
secondary growth
division of lateral meristem, differentiation, growth in width/diameter
3 plant tissues
dermal (covering of body)
ground (most of young plant)
vascular (xylem and phloem)
dermal tissue
epiderm:outermost layer, covers (cuticle/root hairs)
periderm: replaces epidermal of woody plants as age (cork cells)
cuticle/root hairs

cork cells
cuticle:waxy substance to prevent water loss
root hairs:increase surface area --> more water absorbtion
cork cells:thick waterproof walls, bark = dead
ground tissue
all non dermal, non vascular
3 types: parenchyma, collenchyma, sclerenchyma
most abundant, thin walled, alive, metobolic activity (photosynthesis/storage)
elongated cells w/ irregularly thick walls, alive, support
thick second wall, use lignin, dead, support
vascular tissue
xylem and phloem = transport everything
water and minerals from roots to shoots
2 cells: tracheids/vessel elements
thin walled cells, slanted, overlapping pits --> tube
vessel elements
larger, open tubes after death
carries water/dissolved substances made by plant
made of seive tubes
seive tubes
strand of cells made by sieve tube elements
-ends connected by sieve plates (contain pores)
-companion cells: provide nourishment
major photosynthetic structure of plants
must balance need for surface area and need to keep water in
2 parts of leaves
blade and petiole
broad, flat part, sun exposure, vascular bundles in veins
stem that attaches blade to shoot, carry vascular tissues
terminal bud
apical meristem surrounded by developing leaves
daughter cells
of apical meristem differentiate to form stem buds leaves and flowers
lateral buds
grow into branches
spaces b/t nodes
4 types of tissue in young stems
epidermis, vascular, cortex, pith
cuticle and stomata (stop water loss while allowing CO2 to enter)
b/t epidermis and vascular tissue
located inside vascular tissues at center of stem
functions of cortex/pith
support (fill w/ water --> turgor)
storage (store startch)
secondary growth in stems
makes stronger
vascular cambrium/secondary xylem/phloem
vascular cambrium
produces secondary xylem/phloem
inner = xylme
outer = phloem
young/old xylem
young: sapwood (transports)
old: heartwood (strength of tree)
secondary phloem
weak, die when crused by xylem
secondary growth -->
epidermis replaced, lateral meristem (bark) instead
primary root
first root to develop from seed
taproot and fibrous root
taproot roots
dicot: carrot, grows larger and larger
fibrous roots
monocots: dies and replaced
primary growth
= elongation
root cap: protects apical meristem, thick cell walls, lubricant
apical meristem in root
produces: epidermis, vascular tissues, cortex
cortex in root
most of interior - beneath epidermis
outermost layer of vascular tissue and remnant of meristem, can still divide