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35 Cards in this Set

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virus
-infectious particle consisting of a nucleic acid core surrounded by a protein coat (capsid)
-acellular
acellular
-cannot independantly perform metabolic activities
-reproduce by taking over the reproductive machinery of other cells
origin of viruses
originated from transposons or plasmids
2 types of reproduction among viruses
1- Lytic cycle
2- Lysogenic cycle
Lytic cycle
-virus lyses the host cell
- 5 steps
(1)Attatchment: phage attatches
(2) Penetration: Phage DNA enters cell
(3) Replication: phage DNA is replicated
(4) Assembly: Phage components are assembled into mature viruses
(5) Release: bacterial cell lyses and releases many phages
Lysogenic cycle
-Temperate viruses don't destroy their hosts
(1)Attachment: phage attaches
(2)Penetration: phage dna enters bacterial cell
(3)Integration: phage dna integrates into bacterial dna (called "prophage")
(4)Replication: the integrated prophage replicates when bacterial dna replicates
reverse transcriptase
to transcribe the rna genome into a dna intermediate.
viroid
consists of a short strand that serves as a template copied by host rna polymerase
prion
proteinaceous infectious particle
cocci
spherical prokaryotes
Bacilli
rod-shaped prokaryotes
spirochete
spirillum
flexible
rigid

spiral prokaryotes
Peptidoglycan
eubacterial cell wall
consists of amino sugars linked with polypeptides
2 types of peptidoglycan walls
gram-positive and gram-negative
capsule
slime layer that surronds the cell wall.
pili
hairlike appendages. help bacteria adhere to things.
Asexual reproduction
via binary fission
binary fission
one cell divides into 2 similar cells
Sexual reproduction
(1) transformation
(2) transduction
(3) conjugation
Transformation
fragments of DNA released by a cell are taken up by another bacterial cell
Transduction
a phage carries bacterial genes from one cell to another
conjugation
2 cells of different mating types come together and genetic material is transferred from one to the other
Endospores
when environment is unfavorable. cell becomes this.
Heterotrophs
obtain energy and carbon atoms from the organic compounds of other organisms.
Chemoheterotrophs & photoheterotrophs
Chemoheterotrophs
(saprotrophs)
get their carbon and energy from dead organic matter
photoheterotrophs
get their carbon from other organisms but use chloraphyll to trap energy from sunlight
autotrophs
manufacture their own food
photoautotrophs or chemoautotrophs
photoautotrophs
use energy from sunlight to synthesize organic compounds from carbon dioxide
chemoautotrophs
obtain energy by oxidizing inorganic substances.
facultative anaerobes
use oxygen for cellular respiration. if O2 not available they respirate anaerobically
obligate anaerobes
carry on energy-yielding metabolism only without oxygen
3 main types of Archaea
methanogens
halophiles
thermophiles
methanogens
inhabit oxygen-free environments. strict anaerobes. produce methane gas from simple carbon compounds
halophiles
live in saturated brine solutions
thermophiles
live in hot, acidic environments