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20 Cards in this Set

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Nucleotide
deoxyribose, phosphate, and a nitrogenous base
How are nucleotides linked
covalent bonds, phosphodiester linkages
5' end
Has a 5' carbon attached to the phosphate.
3' end
has a 3' carbon attahced to a hydroxyl group.
Complementary base -pairs
HB between AT and GC
DNA helicase
enzymes that seperate the 2 strands
single-strand binding proteins (SSBs)
(helicase-destabilizing proteins)bind to single strands and stabilizes them- prevents helix from reforming.
topisomerases
preventing excessive coiling and knot formation. produces breaks in the DNA molecules
DNA polymerases
enzymes that catalyze the linking together of nucleotide subunits
ATP and GTP
are substrates for the polymerazation rcn
As nucleotides link together...
2 of phosphates are removed
RNA primer
synthesized by DNA primer.
DNA primer
starts a new strand of RNA opposite a DNA strand.
origins of replication
Both strands replicate at a Y-shaped structure called replication fork.
Okazaki fragments
short pieces that join together.
DNA ligase
joins okazaki fragments together
Telomeres
repeating nucleotide sequences. function as caps that protect genetic info. each time when a cell divides, part of it is lost.
shorteining of telomeres
contributes to cell aging
telomerase
lengthens telomeres.
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