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37 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
fertilization
the union of two cell
sperm
male gametes, each haplod (n) in chromosome number
gametes
a haploid reproductive cell, either an ovum (the fertilized egg) or a sperm, formed by meiosis
yolk
an energy rich collection of lipids and proteins
zygote
a fertilized egg
embryo
an organism in its earliest stage of development
activation
the increase in cell respiration and protein synthesis that occurs in a newly formed zygote after fertilization
differentiation
process in which cells become specialized for a specific structure and function via selective gene expression
morphogenesis
the embryonic development of the structure of an organism
cleavage
the process of cell division in animal cells characterized by pinching of the plasma membrane; also, the rapid cell divisions without growth that take place during early embryonic development
blastula
an animal embryo after the cleavage stage, consisting of a hollow, fluid-filled ball of cells
gastrula
the two-layered, cup-shaped embryonic stage
primary germ layers
in animals, the three cell groups - endoderm, ectoderm, and mesoderm - that give rise to all the tissues of the body
ectoderm
the outer layer of cells in the gastrula stage of an animal embryo
endoderm
the innermost layer of the three germ layers, primary tissue layers, in an animal embryo
mesoderm
in most animal embryos, a tissue layer between the ectoderm and endoderm
body plan
the general form of an organism's ody structure, including its pattern of symmetry, germ layers, and body cavities
notochord
a flexible, dorsal, rodlike structure that extends the length of the body of animals called chordates; in vertebrates, present only in the embryonic stages
neural tube
the foundation of the nervous system that forms in an embryos at the gastrula stage
larva
an immature stage of development in offspring of many types of animals, especially arthropods and some aquatic organisms
metamorphosis
in the life cycles of many animals, major changes in the body form and function as the newly hatched young (larvae) mature into adults
segmentation
in animals, division into a series of similar parts, such as is found in annelid (earthworm) and arthropod (insect, crab, and spider) body plansx
homeotic gene
a gene that determines which body parts are made at which locations on a developing organism; turns other genes on and off
homeobox
a short DNA sequence that is virtually identical in certain homeotic genes; protein products of these genes regulate patterns of cell differentiation in a wide variety of organisms
Hox genes
a group of homeotic genes found in all animals, help establish the anterior-posterior axis (head to tail); named Hox genes for the homeoboxes they contain
blastocyst
the mammalian embryonic stage that corresponds to the blastula of other animals
amnion
a sac or membrane filled with fluid and enclosing the embryo of a reptile, bird, or mammal; cushions the embryo
chorion
an embryonic membrane that surrounds all the other embryonic membranes in reptiles, birds, and mammals; used for gas exchange
villus
a fingerlike projection of the small intestine that increases surface area for absorption of digested foods
placenta
a structure in the uterus for exchange of materials between a fetus and a the mother's blood supply; formed from teh uterine lining and embryonic membranes
fetus
an older human embryo
DNA-RNA hybridization
pairing of DNA molecules with RNA molecules by hydrogen bonds between complementary base pairs
determination
the process in which a cell commits to a particular pathway of differentiation
embryonic induction
the influence of one embryonic tissue on another, causing the second tissue to specialize
yolk sac
membrane that contains yolk which norishes the embryo
allantois
membrane for waste primarily, and gas exchange
vestigal
structures without functions: yolk sac, appendix