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16 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
an organism's reproductive cells, such as sperm or egg cells
Binary Fission
a form of asexual reproduction that produces identical offspring.
the units that hold the information in DNA
the two copies of DNA that make up each chromosome
a coiled structure made of the two chromatids which are made of DNA and the proteins associated with DNA when a eukaryotic cell prepares to divide
the point where the two chromatids of a chromosome are attached
Somatic Cell
any cell other than a sperm or egg cell. Has 23 pairs of chromosomes that differ in size, shape, and set of genes. Each pair consists of two homologous chromosomes
Homologous Chromosome
chromosomes that are similar in size, shape and genetic content.
a fertilized egg cell, the first cell of a new individual
the 22 out of 23 pairs of chromosomes in human somatic cells that are not directly involved in determining the gender of an individual
Sex Chromosome
one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans, contains genes that will determine the sex of the individual
a photo of the chromosomes in a dividing cell that shows the chromosomes arranged by size, in which abnormalities in chromosome number can be detected
Deletion mutation
a piece of a chromosome breaks off completely. After cell division, the new cell will lack a certain set of genes. In many cases this proves fatal to the zygote
Duplication mutation
a chromosome fragment attaches to its homologous chromosome, which will then carry 2 copies of a certain set of genes
Inversion mutation
the chromosome piece reattaches to the original chromosome but in a reverse orientation
Translocation mutation
if the piece reattaches to a nonhomologous chromosome