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101 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Biology
the science of life
cell
smallest unit that can perform all the life's processes
metabolism
sum of all chemical processes occurring in an organism
homeostatis
the maintenance of stable internal conditions in the spite of changes in the external environment
gene
sections of chromosomes
heredity
tramission of genetics from parents to offspring
mutations
change in DNA or gene
observations
the act of noting or percieving objects
hypothesis
a testable answer to a scientific question
pH
a scale that determines an acid or base
experiment
a test that is conducted to prove or disprove a hypothesis
control group
a substance that is tested against the control to observe changes
Independant Varible
A variable that is not affected by any other variables with which it is compared.
dependant varible
A variable affected by another variable or by a certain event.
constants
when a substance is unchanging
control
To verify or regulate
nucleic acid
Any of a group of complex compounds found in all living cells and viruses, composed of purines, pyrimidines, carbohydrates, and phosphoric acid.
nucleotide
Any of various compounds consisting of a nucleoside combined with a phosphate group and forming the basic constituent of DNA and RNA.
DNA
A nucleic acid that carries the genetic information in the cell and is capable of self-replication and synthesis of RNA.
RNA
A polymeric constituent of all living cells and many viruses, consisting of a long, usually single-stranded chain of alternating phosphate and ribose units with the bases adenine, guanine, cytosine, and uracil bonded to the ribose.
ATP
contains high-energy phosphate bonds and is used to transport energy to cells for biochemicl processes, including muscle contraction and enzymatic metabolism,
energy
A source of usable power
activation energy
the energy that an atomic system must acquire before a process
enzyme
Any of numerous proteins or conjugated proteins produced by living organisms and functioning as biochemical catalysts.
Substate
A surface on which an organism grows or is attached.
active site
The part of an enzyme at which catalysis of the substrate occurs.
endergonic reaction
a nuclear reaction occurring with absorption of energy
exergonic reaction
a nuclear reaction accompanied by the evolution of energy
passive transport
when cells are transported w/o energy
active transport
when cells are transported w/energy
concentration gradient
The graduated difference in concentration of a solute per unit distance through a solution.
equilibrium
Having equal solute in and outside the cell
diffusion
when a solution spreads out
osmosis
Diffusion of fluid through a semipermeable membrane from a solution with a low solute concentration to a solution with a higher solute concentration until there is an equal concentration of fluid on both sides of the membrane.
Hypertonic solution
When a cell has more solute than its surroundings
Hypotonic soution
When a cell has less solute than its surroundings
isotonic solution
when a cell and its surroundings have an equalibrium solute
facilitated diffusion
a process by which substances are transported across cell membranes
carrier protein
...
receptor protein
...
marker protein
...
sodium potassium pump
A mechanism of active transport that moves potassium ions into and sodium ions out of a cell.
endocytosis
When solute goes into a cell
exocytosis
when water is secreted from a cell
atom
A unit of matter, the smallest unit of an element
protons
a postivily charged atom
electrons
a negativily charged atom
atomic number
The number of protons in an atomic nucleus.
atomic mass
The mass of an atom, usually expressed in atomic mass units.
element
A substance composed of atoms
compound
A combination of two or more elements or parts.
ion
An atom or a group of atoms that has acquired a net electric charge by gaining or losing one or more electrons.
covalant bond
A chemical bond formed by the sharing of one or more electrons, especially pairs of electrons, between atoms.
polar covalant bond
....
ionic bond
A chemical bond between two ions with opposite charges
hydrogen bond
a hydrogen bond is a type of attractive intermolecular force that exists between two partial electric charges of opposite polarity.
cohesion
When molecules stick to one another
adhesion
the attraction between two molecules
capillary action
a phenomenon associated with surface tension and resulting in the elevation or depression of liquids in capillaries
polarity
....
solution
A homogeneous mixture of two or more substances
acid
#
Having a pH of less than, Having a relatively high concentration of hydrogen ions.
base
Having a ph greater than 7
pH scale
a scale that determines if a solution is an acid or base. It ranges 1-14
organic molecule
most carbon molecules are organic molecules
carbohydrate
Any of a group of organic compounds that includes sugars, starches, celluloses, and gums and serves as a major energy source in the diet of animals.
monosaccharide
Any of several carbohydrates, such as tetroses, pentoses, and hexoses, that cannot be broken down to simpler sugars by hydrolysis.
disaccharide
Two or more monosaccharides
saturated fat
A fat, most often of animal origin, that is solid at room temperature and whose fatty acid chains cannot incorporate additional hydrogen atoms.
unsaturated fat
A fat derived from plant and some animal sources, especially fish, that is liquid at room temperature.
peptide bond
The chemical bond formed between the carboxyl groups and amino groups of neighboring amino acids
polypeptide
A peptide, such as a small protein, containing many molecules of amino acids
lipid
Any of a group of organic compounds, including the fats, oils, waxes, sterols, and triglycerides, that are insoluble in water but soluble in nonpolar organic solvents, are oily to the touch, and together with carbohydrates and proteins constitute the principal structural material of living cells.
protein
Any of a group of complex organic macromolecules that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually sulfur and are composed of one or more chains of amino acids.
amino acids
monomer consists of a central carbon atom bonded to four partners.
Compound Light Microscope
....
Magnification
The ratio of the size of an image to the size of an object.
Resolution
The fineness of detail that can be distinguished in an image
cell theory
1. All cell come from existing cells. 2.All cells are living 3.Basic cell structure
cell membrane
The semipermeable membrane that encloses the cytoplasm of a cell
cytoplasm
the region of the cell between the plasma membrane and the nucleus is the cytoplasm
cytoskeleton
The internal framework of a cell
prokaryotic
..
eukarotic
...
cell wall
he rigid outermost cell layer found in plants and certain algae, bacteria, and fungi
flagella
A long, threadlike appendage, especially a whiplike extension of certain cells or unicellular organisms that functions as an organ of locomotion.
cilia
it acts in unison with other such structures to bring about the movement of the cel
nucleus
A large, membrane-bound, usually spherical protoplasmic structure within a living cell
phospholipid bilayer
the phosphlipid form two layer surrounding an organelle or cell.
organelle
Organs of a cell
mitochondria
the sites where cellular repiration occurs
choroplast
the organelle found in plants or algee
nucleolus
a section of the nucleus
ribosomes
proteins contructed from the cell
lysosomes
membrane bound sacks
microtubules
hollow tubes
microfilaments
Any of the minute fibers located throughout the cytoplasm of cells
rough er
produce protein that package them
smooth er
same as rough the lack ribosomes
golgi aparatus
an organelle that modifies stores and routes protein and other chemical proteins
central vacole
a membrane bound sack