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37 Cards in this Set

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DNA
Recipe to make proteins
RNA
A half of a DNA that matches the bases on DNA to replicate it
Genes
segments of DNA that code for proteins
(ex. eye color gene)
Alleles
variation of gene
(ex. blue eye color, brown eye color)
Chromosomes
sausage-like masses of genes
strands of DNA
Dominant/Recessive
Dominant allele paired with a recessive allele will overcome the recessive.
(ex. blue and Brown eyes)
Co-Dominance a.k.a. Incomplete Dominance
Both alleles are expressed
(ex. Mendel's pea plants; red + white petals = pink petals)
Species
group of organisms that can breed with each other
Breeding Population
Lizards of same species but on different islands cannot mate due to geographical or social barriers
Primate
Large brains
Can grab with hands
Stereoscopic vision
Arboreal (capable of living in trees)
Mammal
Mammary glands
Hair
Warm-blooded
Live birth
Active + Intelligent
Old World Monkey
Old World
Downward facing nostrils
Tail cannot grab
New World Monkey
Americas
Spaced nostrils
Prehensile tails
Humans and Apes
Mostly Africa and Asia
Downward facing nostrils
Lacking tails

Four Great Apes
Chimp, Gorilla, Orangutan, Bonobo
Prosimian
Most distantly related to humans
Moist noses
Stereoscopic Vision
seeing from two viewpoints
depth perception
Friends
<b>Ross:</b> If Phoebe's choosing, then say hello to Mike's new groomsman.<br />
<b>Chandler:</b> Oh, I will, but I will need a mirror...as he is ME!<br />
<b>Ross:</b> Pfft...please, you're going down.<br />
<b>Chandler:</b> YOU are going DOWNER!<br />
<b>Ross:</b> Oh, is that what they say on the figure skating team??<br />
<b>Chandler:</b> *sob* I wouldn't know, I didn't make it!!
Dominance Hierarchy
individuals have different ranks within the population

(ex. access to better food/mates)
Dominance Display
showing power without having actually hurt the opponent

(ex. grabbing branches, throwing stones in water, banging on the table, making loud noises)
Grooming
cleaning fur of dead skin, grass seeds, etc.
Fossils
any remnant of ancient life
(ex. bones, footprints, endocast)
Skeleton
bones of an organism
can tell details about it
Sex: cranium, pelvis
Age: teeth, femur, sealing of bones
Reason of death
Diet: wear pattern of teeth
Lifestyle
Locomotion
Absolute Dating
archaeologists can tell general range of age
Relative Dating
archaeologists can only compare two fossils and see which one is older/younger
Radiometric Dating
the process of unstable isotopes turning into stable isotopes (C14 to C12)
Law of Superposition
the lower the layer is, the older the fossil
How do biologists/anthropologists define evolution?
Evolution is the change in gene frequencies within population.
What is a fact? What is a theory? How do we relate the two?
A fact is something that is observable. A theory is an attempt to explain a fact.
(ex. Gravity [fact] and Newton's theories [theory])
What is protein synthesis? What kind of functions do proteins play in our bodies?
Protein synthesis is the manufacturing of proteins with the instructions from DNA and RNA. Proteins help to build tissues and come in the forms of enzymes and hormones.
Why do two brown-eyed parents sometimes have blue-eyed children?
The parent(s) may be heterozygous. The genotype(s) would be Bb and would have a smaller chance of a blue-eyed child.
What's the relationship between genotype and phenotype?
Genotype is the specific genes inherited from the parents. Phenotype is the trait displayed on the outside.

Genotype + Environment = Phenotype
What are the four primary means of evolution we've discussed?
Mutation - changes in genetic material
Natural Selection - well-adapted individuals survive to pass on trait
Genetic Drift - population splits and evolve differently
Gene Flow - populations come together and new genes introduced
What is speciation?
An emergence of new species. Sometimes an individual evolves so much that it can no longer mate with its old species.
What are the defining characteristics of primates?
Large brains
Hands that can grab
Stereoscopic vision
What are the differences between Old World Monkeys, New World Monkeys, and Apes?
Tails:
O - Tail cannot grab
N - Tail can grab
H - No tail

Geography:
O - Old World
N - New World
H - Mostly Africa and Asia
What's the difference between absolute and relative dating?
Absolute dating can give a range of how old a fossil is. Relative dating can only compare two fossils' ages.
What can we learn about an organism by studying its skeleton?
Sex, age, reason of death, diet, lifestyle, locomotion