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25 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Cultural Econiche
the social and cultural ways humans extract resources and/or energy--- 1. through technology (tools, etc.) 2. social organizations (interdependency of people with others: pair bonds, generations, kinship systems, class structures--power and resistance relationships)
Ecological Shift
changing the flow of energy (how you get energy) ex. urbanization: food source changed (now processed), less manual labor (sedentary lifestyles), time constraints (employed mothers) Also, gradual health effects (ex. diabetes)
the study of the distribution of disease in populations and of the factors that explain disease and its distribution (populations are the focus not individuals)
the study of human population: involves the collection and statistical analysis of info about populations (often looks at mortality, fertility and survivorship)
less than the normal sea-level amount of oxygen in the inspired air or in the body (deprivation of oxygen)
Female Circumcision
usually done on children b/w 5 and 11; 4-5 million a year- mostly African and Middle Eastern countries; sometimes a midwife and sometimes a physician does the surgery; varies in the amount of female genitals removed, but from only the hood of the clitoris removed to the entire clitoris ,labia minora and labia majora removed and the wound stitched together w/ a small opening to urinate and menstruate
the proportion of individuals in a population who have a particular disease or condition at one point in time (# of cases/# in population)
the rate at which new cases of a disease or other health-related events occur in a population over a given period of time (# of new cases(didn't exist when the study started)/unaffected(at the beginning of the period of time)
the # of cases of disease per unit of population occurring over a unit of time (conditions of ill health; causes of mortality)
Risk Factors
not the cause of disease, but these point to the causes of disease or where one should look for causes-- ex. age, sex, weight, sexual orientation, diet, family history, smoking, race, etc...
Case/Control Studies
epidemiologists take cases of a disease and compare these cases to a control group/ these studies are done at the same point in time, not over a period of time (those with vs. those without)
Prospective/Cohort Studies
this type of study follows unexpected people overtime to see who gets the disease (new cases compared to those not affected at the beginning of the study)***incidence***
Virgin Soil Epidemics
the surge spread of disease in a population that has no immunities (never been affected before)
Endemic Disease
when disease is in the population all the time at low levels/ often a person is sick and then they become immune (flare ups)/ new hosts come often with new babies and/or children
Type 1 Diabetes
Most often diagnosed in children/ when beta cells in the pancreas die, so no insulin in the body (insulin allows sugar in the body in a regulated manner)
Type 2 Diabetes
diagnosed mostly in adults/ insulin resistance- the body is making insulin but it refuses to use it, so the body makes too much (insulin stops fat cells from breaking down so Type 2 often associated with being over weight)
Thrifty Genotype/Phenotype
James Neel/ this is a theoretical gene b/c it hasn't been proven or found yet; an adaptation from ancestors that gives the genetic basis for the capacity to metabolize food efficiently; pathway to fat storage in the body (type 2 diabetes)
Psychosocial Dwarfism
a growth disorder caused by extreme emotional deprivation or stress; a progressive disease; children with this have extremely low levels of growth hormone; exhibit signs of failure to thrive; often no infant/mother stimulation
an affectionate tie that one person forms with another (usually a parent); a tie that binds them together in space and endures over time (ex. Harlow and the monkey study)
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome; Mckenna hypothesized that SIDS was a lack of regulation by the mother with the infant, due partly to the end in co-sleeping b/w mother and infant; when an infant does not come out of sleep apnea due to no stimulation by the mother
Developmental Plasticity
individuals' characteristics (biological and social) can be adapted and developed due to their environments; often these characteristics are set at birth (or early in life) and can change and adapt due to environment, etc. (Bateson article)
dealing with the investment of resources; if you use resources on one thing, you can't use them on something else, thus a trade-off
Social Network: Gender
Females: large cost of gestation, limited reproductive capacity, need resources
Males: need females to be reproductive, compete with each other for females, try to control resources (pair bonds)
Social Network: Generation
peak production is older so older people can generate a surplus and feed younger people/generations to keep them alive; grandmother hypothesis: predicts longevity in humans b/c humans keep living productive lives long after they stop reproducing, thus they have value for younger generations
Social Network: Class Hierarchy
benign sharing of food , ends up in a dependency situation (higher ups create power over lower classes and demand costs of them--in other words, exploitation); power and resistance relationships-- resources flow up and costs flow down; those with lower income, or those subject to income inequality, are proven to have poorer health