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56 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Systemic Circulation
Left ventricle (thick wall) to aorta,
to many small arteries
to smaller arterioles
to capillaries (gas and nutrient exchange)
to venules (valves)
to veins
to superior and inferior vena cava
to right atrium

(first half of circulation described above is called systemic circulation)

-closed circulatory system
Pulmonary Circulation
-second have of circulation

-from right atrium blood is pumped
to pulmonary arteries
to arterioles
to capillaries of lungs
then in veins
and in pulmonary veins leading to heart
to left atrium
to left ventricle
and this is end of cycle

(closed circulatory system)
Systole vs. diastole
systole -when ventricles contract

diastole- when heart is relaxed
How is blood propelled?
-hydrostatic pressure created by contraction of the heart
sinoatrial node
-in the right atrium
-is authorhythmic (contracts by itself at regular intervals)
-maintains automatic contractions of heart by spreading to electrical synapses made from gap junctions

-inhibited by vagus nerve and slows rate of contractions

-also spreads contractions to atrioventricular node
atrioventricular node
-contracts when it recieves signal from sinoatrial node
-slower to contract than sinoatrial node
-creates a delay which allows atria to finish contracting and squeeze contents into ventricles before ventricles begin to contract

-the action potential branches out through ventricular walls via Purkinje fibers
Purkinje fibers
-spreads action potential to ventricular walls from the AV node

-spreads AP through gap junctions from one cardiac muscle to next

-allows for more unified and stronger contraction
-carry blood away
-elastic and stretch when filled with blood and recoil keeping the blood moving smoothly

-constricted by epinephrine

-large arteries have less smooth muscle per volume and less affected by sympathetic intervention

-medium sized arteries contrict enough under sympathetic stimulation to reroute blood
-very small, wrapped by smooth muscle
0used to regulate BP as well as reroute blood
-microscopic blood vessels
-only one cell thick
-allow for nutrient and gas exhange by pinocytosis, diffusion, pore movement,

blood flows into capillary out of interstitium: osmotic pressure > hydrostatic pressure

blood flows out of capillary: hydrostatic pressure > osmotic pressure
venules and veins
-hold about 64% of blood in systemic circulation in a body at rest while arteries arterioles and capillaries hold 20

-cross sectional area 4X greater then arteries

-total cross sectional area of capillaries is greater than veins and capillaries (when one combines all capillary areas)

-blood moves slowest through capillaries and fastest through arteries

-carries blood towards heart
major contributor to blood pressure
-pumping force of heart
Which part of the heart pumps oxygenated blood?
oxygenated blood returning from lungs flows into left atrium and then into left ventricle then to systemic circulation

The right atria and ventricle pump deoxygenated blood to lungs
Where is blood pressure the greatest?
It is greatest in the aorta and doesnt follow Bernoulli's equation. It drops until it gets back to the heart.
-when medulla sends signals for diaphram to contract, diaphram flattens from its non-contracted dome shape position, pressure more negative than atmosphere, chess cavity expands (with help from intercostal muscles)
nasal cavity
-space inside nose
-filters moistens, and warms incoming air

-coarse hair traps dust particles

-mucus secreted by goblet cells trap smaller dust particles and moistens the air
-passageway for food and air
voice box, sits behind epiglottis (which prevents food from entering trachea during swallowing)
-in front of esophagus
-composed of cartilage coveted by ciliated mucous cells

-splits into left and right bronchi before entering lungs
-bronchi branches out into these tiny tubes
-terminate into alveolar sacs composed of tiny alveoli where oxygen diffuses into a capillary picked up by red blood cells and red blood cells give back CO2 in exchange
-protein that binds and transports oxygen in blood forming oxyhemoglobin

-inside erthrocytes

-composed of four polypeptide units

-can bind four O2 molecules with each of the four iron atoms in hemoglobin

-oxygenation and deoxygenation are accelerated in other iron groups when one binds or loses oxygens

-saturation of hemoglobin with O2 corresponds with O2 pressure
oxygen dissociation curve
-relates O2 saturation of hemoglobin with pressure of O2

-shifted to the right by increase in CO2 pressure, hydrogen ion concentration, or temperature indicating a lowering of hemoglobins affinity for oxygen

-shift due to pH is Bohr shift
pulmonary circlation vs. systemic circulation
Pulmonary circulation
-carries deoxygenated blood away from heart to lungs to get oxygenated and back to heart

-leaves right heart through pulmonary arteries and returns through pulmonary veins

Systemic circulation

-carries oxygenated blood away from heart to body and deoxygenated blood back to heart where pulmonary circulation picks it up
CO2 in blood
-mostly carried as bicarbonate ions

-governed by carbonic anhydrase in reaction:
CO2 + H2O-> HCO3- + H+

-chloride shift occurs when chlorine moves out of cell to balance incoming carbonate ions when CO2 is absorbed in lungs
-too much acid in blood
-body compensates by increasing breathing rate and expelling carbon dioxide raising the pH of the blood
central and periperhal chemoreceptors
-monitor CO2 concentration in blood andincrease breathing when levels are too high

-oxygen concentration and pH are monitored by peripheral chemoreceptors
Nitrogen in diving
-nitrogen diffues into blood but too strong to react bc of tripple bond in N2,

-in diving pressure increases, more diffuses, when you come up you have to allow time for N2 to diffuse out into lungs or it will bubble in blood and block blood vessels
Increased blood pH causes:
-hyperventilation: too much breathing -> CO2 out -> pH increases
lymphatic system
collects excess interstitial fluid and returns it to blood

-nodes throughout lymp system contain many lymphocytes and are well prepared to elicit immune response

-recylces interstitial fluid and monitors blood for infection

-reroutes fat digestates around small capillaries of intestine and into large veins of neck

-open system

-empties into thoracic duct and right lymphatic duct
lymph vessels
-have valves which allow flow in one direction

-smooth muscle in large lymph vessels contract when stretched

-flow may be squeezed by adjacent skeletal muscles, body movements arterial pulsations and compression from objects outside of body so lymph flow is much greater in active person then person at rest
connective tissue, contains cells and matrix

-separated into plasma, white blood cells and red blood cells

hematocrit: percentage of red blood cells usually 30-50%
greater in men
contains matrix including water, ions, urea, ammonia, proteins
transports faty acids in blood and regulates osmotic pressure of blood
-in blood plasma
immunoglobulins aka antibodies
-carried in blood plasma
-clotting protein in plasma

-if removed from plasma, plasma called serum
red blood cells
-bags of hemoglobin
-no organelles
-no nucleus
-do not reproduce or undergo mitosis
-carry O2 and CO2
-old cells are blasted in spleen
-white blood cells,
-have organelles, protect body from invaders

-granular leukocytes are neutrophils, eosinophils and basophils (function against all infective agents)

neutrophils are neutral
eosiniophils stain in acid
basophils stain in base (in blood for 4-8 hours before deposited into tissue)

agranular leukocytes include monocytes which turn into macrophages and may live for years (function against specific infective agents)
stem cell
-what all blood cells differentiate from
-in bone marrow
-erthrocytes lose nucleus while in marrow and lose rest of organelles when in blood
-small portions of membrane bound cytoplasm torn from megakaryocytes in bone marrow

-contain actin and myosin
-adhere to injured endothelium and form platelet plug

-has half life of 8-12 days in blood
-blood clot formation
-involves many factors starting with platelets and include plasm proteins prothrombin and fibrin
-dilation of blood vessles, increased permability of capillaries, swelling of tissue cels, and migration of granulocytes and macrophages to inflamed area

-histamine, prostaglandins and lymphokines are causative agents released by tissues

-goal is to impede spread of infection
infections agents treatment by body
-first attacked by macrophages which are phagocytic giants that can engulf 100 bacteria

-then neutrophils attack, they are stored in bone marrow until needed, drawn by chemicals in chemotaxis to infected area and can phagocytize 5 to 20 bacteria

monocytes circulate in blood and mature to become macrophages

eusinophils work against parasites
acquired immunity
-two ways

-B-cell immunity (humoral)
-T-cell immunity (cell-mediated)
B cell immunity (humoral)
-promoted by B lymphocytes
-differentiate and matrue in the bone marrow and liver
-B lymphocytes can make a single type of antibody
-recognize antigen or foreign particle and binds to it

-specific for antigen

-haptens is antegenic determinant removed from antigen that can trigger immune response if body has been previously exposed

-B lymphocyte assited by T helper cell will differentiate into plasma cell or memory B cells

Plasma cells synthesize free antibodies which may attach to mast cells which when attached to antigen can cause a series of reactions that result in perforation of antigen
primary response
-first time immune system is exposed to an antigen
-requires 20 days to reach potential
Memory B cells
-results of B cells that diffentiate after a primary response
-remain in body
-in case of reinfection these cells synthesize antibodies and result in faster and more potent secondary response which takes 5 days to reach full potential
-mature in thymus
-like B lymphocytes they can recognize antigens with antibody like protein
but unlike B lymphocytes they do not make free antibodies

-tested in lymph and are destroyed if they bind to self-antigens

-those not destroyed differentiate into helper T cells, memory T cells, suppressor T cells and killer t cells
helper T cells
-assist in activating B lymphocytes as well as killer and suppressor T cells
-attacked by HIV
Memory T cells
-similar function to memory b cells,
-allow for secondary response
suppressor t cells
negative feedback role in the immune system
killer t cells
bind to antigen carrying cell and release perforin a rpotein which punctures antigen carrying cells and killer t cells attack
Bacterial infection: process of defense
-macrophages, neutrophils engulf bacteria
-interstital fluid is flushed into lymphatic system where lymphocytes wait in lymph nodes
-macrophages present bacteria to B lymphocytes and with help of T lymphocytes B lympocytes turn into memory cells and plasma cells

-plasma cells produce antibodies which are released into blood and attack bacteria

-single B lymphocyte releases single antibody
Blood types
-identified by the A and B surface antigens

type O has neither A or B antigens and makes A and B antibodies (universal donor)

AB can recieve any kind of blood

O can recieve only O

-O is recessive

A or B are dominant
old red blood cells
-spleen and liver destroys old red blood cells
Innate response
-does not involve T or B lymphocytes

-acidic environment of stomach and digestive enzymes that destroy ingested organisms and toxins
-skin as barrier
-phagocytic cells
-chemicals in blood
-white blood cells