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61 Cards in this Set

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What do the burning of glucose and oxygen create?
carbon dioxide, water, heat, and light
The first step of glucose metabolism
glycolysis
Which reactions are anaerobic?
glycolysis and fermentation
Three carbon molecule created in glycolysis
pyruvate
Which reaction is aerobic
cellular respiration
What is pyruvate converted to during cellular respiration?
three CO2 molecules
What is pyruvate converted to in fermentation?
latic acid or ethanol
A reaction in which one substance transfers one or more electrons to another substance
a redox reaction
REduction _____ electrons
gains
Oxidation_____ electrons
loses
What do the burning of glucose and oxygen create?
carbon dioxide, water, heat, and light
The first step of glucose metabolism
glycolysis
Which reactions are anaerobic?
glycolysis and fermentation
Three carbon molecule created in glycolysis
pyruvate
Which reaction is aerobic
cellular respiration
What is the reduced form of NAD?
NADH+
What is the oxidized form of NAD?
NAD+
What is the reduced form of NAD?
NADH+
The reactant that becomes reduced
oxidation agent
The reactant that becomes oxidized
reduction agent
When a molecule loses an electron, what does it also lose?
a hydrogen atom
Other than NAD, what is another carrier of electrons during glucose metabolism?
FAD
What are the 3 pathways of cellular respiration?
pyruvate oxidation, the citric acid cycle, and the respitory or electron transfer chain
Where does gylcolysis take place in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes?
cytoplasm
How much energy doe sglycolysis produce?
a small amount
Does glycolysis generate CO2?
no
What is the most common form of energy molecule and what is its formula?
glucose, C6H12O6
The first 5 steps of glycolysis are endergonic or exergonic?
endergonic
The last 5 steps of glycolysis are endergonic or exergonic?
exergonic
ATP is broken apart and phosphate is attached to glucose endergonic or exergonic?
endergonic
Phosphate is cleaved from glucose and adds to ADP to make ATP endergonic or exergonic?
exergonic
What is the substrate in the first 5 steps of glycolysis?
ATP
What enzyme catalyzes the first reaction of glycolysis?
hexokinase
How many molecules of ATP have been invested in the first 5 steps of glycolysis?
2
How many molecules of pyruvate for each molecule of glucose?
2
What kind of reaction is it when an enzyme makes ATP without a hydrogen ion gradient?
substrate-level phosphorilation
How many molecules of ATP for each molecule of glucose?
2
What is the gross number of ATP made in glycolysis?
4
What is the net number of ATP made in glycolysis?
2
Where does pyruvate oxidation occur?
inner-mitochondrial membrane
What is the intermediate step between glycolysis and respiration?
pyruvate oxidation
Is CO2 made in glycolysis?
no
Is CO2 made in pyruvate oxidation?
yes
What is the starting point for the citric acid cycle?
Acetyl COA
Is CO2 made in the citric acid cycle?
Yes
What are the inputs in the citric acid cycle?
Acetyl CoA, water, Nad+ and FAD
What are two type of electron carriers?
NAD+ and FAD
What are the outputs of the citric acid cycle?
NADH+ + H+, FADH2, CO2, a small amount of ATP
What happens to H+ ion concentrations in the citric acid cycle?
They don't change
Can CoA be reused?
yes
What does succinyl CoA make?
GTP and Pi
What does GTP make?
ATP
Where does the citric acid cycle occur?
mitochondrial matrix
What must reduced forms do before the respitory chain?
get rid of their hydrogens
What is ATP synthesis from electron transport called?
oxidative phosphorylation
What two macromolecules does the respitory chain contain?
proteins and lipids
What are two type of electron carriers?
NAD+ and FAD
What are the outputs of the citric acid cycle?
NADH+ + H+, FADH2, CO2, a small amount of ATP
What happens to H+ ion concentrations in the citric acid cycle?
They don't change
Can CoA be reused?
yes
What does succinyl CoA make?
GTP and Pi