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35 Cards in this Set

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Major reaction for digestion of all macromolecules
HYDROLYSIS
Basic Anatomy of digestive tract
mouth-esophagus-stomach-small intestine-large intestine- rectum- anus
Mouth and Esophagus
-digestion of carbs begins in mouth with alpha amylase enzyme
-chewed food forms a bolus which is pushed down esophagus via peristalic action
Stomach
-very flexible pouch that mixdes and stores food reducing it to what is called chyme
-contains two exocrine glands with gastric pits
-begins protein digestion with pepsin enzyme
-low pH to activate enzymes, kill bacteria and denature proteins
Cells of the stomach
Mucous cells: line stomach wall and secrete mucus (sticky glycoprotein)to protect epithelial lining frmo pH

Chief cells: found in exocrine glands-secrete pepsinogen or zymogen of pepsin

Parietal cells: found in exocrine glands-secrete HCL which diffuses to lumen
-lowers pH of stomach and raises pH of blood

G cells: secrete gastrin a peptide hormone which stimulates parietal cells to secrete HCL
Small intestine
-location for 90% of digestion and absorption
-divided into duodenum(digestion, jejunum and ileum (absorption)
-contain villi
-contain goblet cells or epithelial cells which secrete mucus for protection
Villi on small intestine walls
-increase surface area for digestion and absorption
-each villus has cappilary network called a lacteal, a lymph vessel in which nutrients pass into
-on the lumen side contain microvilli
microvilli on the villi in the small intestine
-smaller fingerlike projections which further increase the surface area
-look fuzzy called brush border which contain smembrane bound digestive enzymes to digest carbs, peptidases for proteins, nuclosidases for nucleotide
Pancreas
-helps maintain pH of 6 in the duodenum of the small intestine by secreting bicarbonate ion

-releases enzymes from acinar cells through pancreatic duct into small intestine
including trypsin (once activated activates other enzymes) and chymotrypsin (protein degradation to dipeptides and amino acids then brush border finishes the job then absorption)

-as well as amylase (degrades nearly all carbs from chyme glucose polymers and disacchardies then brush border enzymes finish the job to monosaccharides)

Lipase: degrades triglycerides and fat
-aided by bile which is produced in liver and stored in the gallbladder
-Bile emuslifiees or breaks up fat to increase SA, bile does not digest anything
-Bile shuttles products to brush border by bile micelles
Large intestine
-major function include water absorption and electrolyte absorption
-failure of LI resultes in diarrhea cha cha cha
-containes E. Coli bacteria which produces vitamin K, B12, thiamin and riboflaviin in return for other leftovers..mutual symbiosis
Gastrointestinal hormones
-help regulate the process of the stomach releasing small amounts of food at a time to be digested and absorbed
-secretin, cholecystokinin, gastric inhibitory peptide are peptide hormones secreted after each meal that increase blood insulin hormones
Absorption: Carbohydrates
-end product of carbohydrate digestion is mostly glucose
-glucose dragged into enterocyte by sodium through a secondary transport mechanism
-all carbs absorbed into blood stream and carried by portal vein to the liver
-high concentrations of lumenal glucose glucose builds up in paracellular space and raises osmotic pressure then aqueous solution of lumen is dragged into paracellular space pulling glucose too
-glucose mostly transported by facilitated diffusion except in renal tubule and enterocytes
-muscle and liver cells can store large amounts of glucose
Absorption of Carbyohydrates: role of the liver
-responsible for maintaining fairly constant blood glucose level
-absorves carbohydrates and converts any galactose or fructose into glucose and then glycogen for storage
-glycogenesis: formation of glucose
-glycogenolysis: breakdown of glycogen to restore blood glucose levels
Absorption: Proteins
-absorption of many protein digestion products (amino acids, dipeptides and tripeptides) occurs through a cotransport mechansim down the concentration of sodium
-all polypeptides hydrolized to amino acids in enterocyte
-from enterocytes directly absorbed into blood and taken up by cells of body especially liver
-cells immediately create proteins to keep amino acid blood concentration low
-ammonia a byproduct of gluconeogenesis from proteins is converted to urea from kiden and liver
Absorption: Fats
-digestion products monoglycerides and fatty acids are shuttled to the brush border by bile micelles from the chyme and diffuse through enterocyte membrane
-at smooth ER in enterocyte, fats turned back to triglycerides and these amphipathic molecuels orient themselves with charged ends toward lumen,
-apoproteins attach to these globules and globules move to golgi apparatus and then are released from cell
-globules or chylomicrons mostly enter the lacteals of the lymph system
-emptied into the large veins of the neck
-chylomicrons stick to the side of capillary walls where lipoprotein lipase hydrolyzes triglycerides and products immediately diffuse into fat and liver cells
-adipose tissue transports free fatty acids which combines with albumin in the blood(carrier for fat)
-chylomicrons are big lipoproteins and there are four types
types of lypoprotein
-very low density (transport triglycerides from liver to adipose tissue)
-intermediate density (transport cholesterol and phospholipids to cells of body)
-low density
-high density
-made from triglycerides, cholestero, phospholipids and proteins, as density increases then amount of triglycerides decrease then amount of cholesterol and phospholipid decrease
between meals 95% of lipids in plasma are lipoproteins
Liver
functions:
-store blood
-filter blood, Kupfer cells phagocytize bacteria
-carbohydrate metabolism: maintains normal blood glucose levels through gluconeogenesis
-fat metabolism: synthezises bile from cholesterol adn converts carbs and protein into fat
-deaminates amino acids, forms urea from ammonia, synthesizes plasma proteins and synthesizes nonessential amino acids
-detox: detoxified chemicals are polarized so they can be excreted by kidney
-vitamin storage: stores vitamin A, D, B12.
-when mobilizing fat or protein for energy, blood acidity increases!!
Kidney functions
:excrete waste products including urea, uric acid, ammonia, and phosphate
-maintain homeostasis of the bodyfluid volume and solute composition
-help control plasma pH
Kidney anatomy
-fist sized
-has outer cortex and inner medulla
-urine is created by kidney and emptied into renal pelvis emptied by ureter which carries urine to bladder and then urethra
Kidney Units
-functional unit of kidney called nephron
-first capillary bed called glomerulus where blood flows
-glomerlus + bowmans capsule = renal corpuscle
-hydrostatic pressure forces plasma through fenestrations of the glomerular endothelium and into the Bowman's capsule and screens out blood cells and large protein
-anything in the Bowman's capsule is called filtrate or primary urine
-filtrate goes from Bowmans to proximal tubule
proximal tubule of kidney
-location where most reabsorption occurs
-secondary active transport proteins in the apical membranes of the proximal tubule cells responsible for reabsorption of all glucose proteins and solutes
-if solute has reached transport maximum it is washed into urine
-secretes drugs toxins and other solutes into filtrate
-secretes hydrogen ions through an antiport system like glucose transport with sodium
-uric acid, bile pigments, other drugs secreted into proximal tubule
-net resulte is to reduce amount of filtrate in nephron while changing slute composition without changing osmolarity
-filtrate then flows to loop of henle
loop of Henle
-dips into medulla
-increases solute concentration and osmotic pressure of medulla
-descending loop of Henle has low permeability to salt so filtrate osmolarity goes up, but is permeable to water
-as filtrate goes on ascending loop of henle salt diffuses out passively then actively
-ascending loop is impermeable to water
then flows into distal tubule
distal tubule of kidney
-reabsorbs Na+ and Ca 2+ while secreting K+ H+
-acted on by aldosterone to increase sodium and potassium membrane transport proteins
-net affect is to lower the filtrate osmolarity
-empties into collecting duct
collecting duct of the kidney
-carries filtrate into higlhy osmotic medulla
-impermeable to water except in presence of ADH allowing water to passively diffuse and concetrate urine
juxtaglomerular apparatus
-monitors filtrate pressure in the distal tubule
-granular cells secrete enzyme renin which stimulates adrenal cortex to secrete aldosterone through a series of steps,
Major reaction for digestion of all macromolecules
HYDROLYSIS
Basic Anatomy of digestive tract
mouth-esophagus-stomach-small intestine-large intestine- rectum- anus
Mouth and Esophagus
-digestion of carbs begins in mouth with alpha amylase enzyme
-chewed food forms a bolus which is pushed down esophagus via peristalic action
Stomach
-very flexible pouch that mixdes and stores food reducing it to what is called chyme
-contains two exocrine glands with gastric pits
-begins protein digestion with pepsin enzyme
-low pH to activate enzymes, kill bacteria and denature proteins
Cells of the stomach
Mucous cells: line stomach wall and secrete mucus (sticky glycoprotein)to protect epithelial lining frmo pH

Chief cells: found in exocrine glands-secrete pepsinogen or zymogen of pepsin

Parietal cells: found in exocrine glands-secrete HCL which diffuses to lumen
-lowers pH of stomach and raises pH of blood

G cells: secrete gastrin a peptide hormone which stimulates parietal cells to secrete HCL
Small intestine
-location for 90% of digestion and absorption
-divided into duodenum(digestion), jejunum and ileum (absorption)
-contain villi
-contain goblet cells or epithelial cells which secrete mucus for protection
Villi on small intestine walls
-increase surface area for digestion and absorption
-each villus has cappilary network called a lacteal, a lymph vessel in which nutrients pass into
-on the lumen side contain microvilli
microvilli on the villi in the small intestine
-smaller fingerlike projections which further increase the surface area
-look fuzzy called brush border which contain smembrane bound digestive enzymes to digest carbs, peptidases for proteins, nuclosidases for nucleotide
Pancreas
-helps maintain pH of 6 in the duodenum of the small intestine by secreting bicarbonate ion

-releases enzymes from acinar cells through pancreatic duct into small intestine
including trypsin (once activated activates other enzymes) and chymotrypsin (protein degradation to dipeptides and amino acids then brush border finishes the job then absorption)

-as well as amylase (degrades nearly all carbs from chyme glucose polymers and disacchardies then brush border enzymes finish the job to monosaccharides)

Lipase: degrades triglycerides and fat
-aided by bile which is produced in liver and stored in the gallbladder
-Bile emuslifiees or breaks up fat to increase SA, bile does not digest anything
-Bile shuttles products to brush border by bile micelles
Large intestine
-major function include water absorption and electrolyte absorption
-failure of LI resultes in diarrhea cha cha cha
-containes E. Coli bacteria which produces vitamin K, B12, thiamin and riboflaviin in return for other leftovers..mutual symbiosis