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42 Cards in this Set

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Multicellular and Unicellular have these traits in common...
uptake and processing of nutrients, excretion of wastes, response to enviromental stimuli and reproduction among others
Multicellular organims exhibit three major strutural levels above the cell...
tissues, organs, and organ systems
population
group of organisms belonging to the same species
biological community
populations of several species in the same area
ecosystem
populations that interact with their physical enviroment
Novel properties
emerge at each step upward in the biological hierarchy
biological community
populations of several species in the same area
ecosystem
populations that interact with their physical enviroment
novel properties
emerge at each step upward in the biological hierarchy
emergent properties result from
interactions between components
reductionism
reducing complex systems to simpler components
Robert Hooke
1665 saw first cell on a cork
Leeuwenhoek
saw single celled organism in pond water and observed cells in sperm and blood
Schliedan and Schwaan
postulated cell theory
cell theory
postulates that all living things consists of cells
extended cell theory
all cells come from other cells. New cells are produced by division of existing cells, this being a critical process in reproduction , growth, and repair of multicellular organisms.
proks and euks can be distinguished byu their...
structural organization
archea and bacteria are...
proks
traits of euks
cells are subdivided by internal membranes
- dna combines with protiens to form chromosomes inside of the nucleus
-some euks have cell walls
traits of proks
-dna is not separated from the cytoplasm in a nucleus
-all proks cells have tough external walls
paleontology
study of fossils, developed by cuvier
Cuvier recognized
extinction had been a common occurence and that instead of evolution it was catastrophism
Hutton
proposed gradulism
gradulism
diversity of land forms could be explained by mechanisms currently operating
Lyell
proposed uniformitarianism
uniformitarianism
geological processes had not changed throughout earth's history
Lamarck's theory
attempted to explain fossil record as well as the current diversity of life
Origin of species developed two main points
occurence of evolution and natural selection as its mechanism
Darwinism has a dual meaning
refers to evolution as the explanation for life's unity and diveristy

refers to natural selection as the cause of adaptive evolution
observations
1- all species can reproduce
2- populations tend to remain a stable size
3- resources are limited
4- no two individuals are alike
5- variation is heritable
inferences
1- struggle for existence
2- struggle depends on hereditary
3- favorable characteristics will arise
3 points of darwinism
natural selection is differntial success in reproduction
-natural selection occurs through an interation between the enviroment and the variability
-product of natural selection is the adaptation of populations of organisms to their enviroment
Malthus
offspring out grow the amount of food available so natural selection occurs
differential reproduction
whereby organisms with traits favored by enviroment produces more offspring than do organisms without those traits
artificial selection
selecting individuals as breeding stock
homologous structures
same skeletal elements but different functions due to divergence from the ancestor
comparative anatomy
evolution is a remodeling process via alteration of existing structures
vestigal organs
organs that were important to ancestors but not to current organisms
convergent evolution
organisms that look alike but are actually dna wise are closer related to something in thier own area.
biogeography
geoprahical distribution of species
endemics
flora and fauna found on an island found nowhere else in the world
microevolution
a change in the allele frequencies in a population