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60 Cards in this Set

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exocrine glands
-release enzymes to the external environments through ducts
-sweat oil and digestive glands
endocrine glands
release hormones directly into body fluids
-effects are slower, less direct, and longer lasting than nervous system
-all hormones act by binding to protein receptors
-regulates metabolic activities, growth and development, reproduction
-many endocrine glands are stimulated by neurons to secrete hormones
Hormones
Three basic types;
-peptide hormones
-steroid hormones
-tyrosine derivatives
About Peptide hormones
-derived from peptides
-often include carb portions
-manufactured in the rough ER typically as a preprohormone which is then cleaved in the ER lumen to become a prohormone, transported and packaged in golgi
-water soluble, move freely through blood
-cannot diffuse through membranes so they bind to a membrane bound receptor which may then form an ion channel increasing perm. to a specific ion, act as an ion channel, or activate a second messanger like cAMP, cGMP or calmodulin.
-second messenger activates or deactivates enzymes or ion channels
Specific Peptide Hormones
Anterior pituitary Hormones: FSH, LH, ACTH, TSH, Prolactin, hGH
Posterior Pituitary Hormones:
ADH Oxytocin
Parathryoid Hormone: PTH
Pancreatic hormones: glucagon and insulin
Steroid Hormones
-derived similar to cholesterol
-formed in series of steps in mitochondria and/or smooth er
OPPOSITE OF PEPTIDES IN THAT:
-they are lipids; require a protein transport molecule in order to dissolve into blood
-lipid soluble, can diffuse through cell membrane of effector

-when inside cell combines with a receptor in the cytosol which transports into the nucleus
-steroid acts at level of transcription and typically increases membrane or cellular proteins wihtin effector
Specific Steroid Hormones
Adrenal cortex glucocorticoids and mineral corticoids:
-Cortisol and Aldosterone
Gonadal hormones: estrogen progesterone testosterone
Tyrosine derivatives
-thyroid hormones: T3, T4
-catacholamines from adrenal medulla: epinephrine and norephinephrine
-all tyrosine derivatives formed by enzymes in cytosol or on rough ER
Thyroid hormones
-lipid soluble
-require protein carrier in blood
-high affinity to binding proteins which creates a latent period in their response and increases duration of effect
-increase transcription of large number of genes in all cells of the body
Catecholamines
-Epinephrine and norephinephrine
-water soluble, dissolve in blood,
-act through second messanger cAMP
Negative Feedback
Hormones respond to body conditions: Glands lag behind effector
-example: ADH holds water in body decreasing urine output and increasing blood pressure
If someone has high BP they probably have LOW ADH because this is trying to low the blood pressure
- endocrine hormones are used to maintain balance
Anterior Pituitary
-beneath hypothalamus which controls release of anterior pituitary hormoens
-releases all peptide hormones
FLAT PH
1) Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)
2) leutinizing hormone (LH)
3) adrenocorticotropin (ACTH)
4) Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
5) Prolactin
6) Human growth hormone (hGH)
Human Growth Hormone (hGH) (somatotropin)
-only anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates growth in all cells of body
-increasing mitosis, cell size, rate of protein synthesis, mobilizing fat stores, decreasing use of glucose
-increases aminoacid transport across cell membrane, increasing translation and transcription and decreasing the breakdown of protein and amino acids
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
-peptide hormone of anterior pituitary
-stimulates adrenal cortex to release glucocorticoids via second messanger cAMP
Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH)
-peptide hormone of the anterior pituitary
-stimulates thyroid to release T3 and T4 via the second messanger cAMP
-increases Thyroid cell size, number and rate of secretion
-T3 and T4 have negative feedback effect on TSH both at anterior pituitary and hypothalamus
Prolactin
-peptide horomone of the anterior pituitary
- promotes milk production
-inhibited by hypothalamus until childbirth
-suckling activates hypothalamus which stimulates anterior pituitary to release prolactin
posterior pituitary
-mainly composed of support tissues from nerve endings in the hypothalamus
-peptide hormones Oxytocin and ADH are made in hypothalmaus then released by posterior pituitary
Oxytocin
-small peptide bond produced in hypothalamus released by post. pituitary that increases uterine contractions during pregnancy and causes milk to be ejected from breasts
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)/vasopressin
-small peptide hormone made in hypothalamus released by posterior pituitary
-causes collecting ducts of kidney to become permeable to water reducing amount of urine and concentrating the urine
-increases BP
Adrenal Cortex
-located on top of kidneys
-secretes only steroid hormones
-secret mineral corticoid aldosterone and gluco corticoid cortisol
aldosterone
-mineral corticoid secreted from the adrenal cortex
-acts in the distal convoluted tube
- increases Na+ and Cl- reabsorption and K+ H+ secretion especially in Kidney
-increases BP
Cortisol
-steroid glucocorticoid released by adrenal cortex that increases blood glucose levels by stimulating gluconeogensis in liver
-degrades adipose tissue to fatty acids for energy
-stress hormone
Adrenal Medulla
emit catecholamines norepinephrine and epinephrine, and have similar effects as in the smypathetic nervous system
-fight or flightresponse
Thyroid
Secretes:
tyrosine derivatives T3 and Thyroxine (T4)
-peptide hormone calcitonin
-stimulated by TSH of the anterior pituitary
T3 and T4
-tyrosine derivative hormones released by thyroid
T3- three iodine atoms
T4- four iodine atoms
-lipid soluble
-act in nucleus of effector
-increase metabolism or basal metabolic rate
-regulated by TSH
Calcitonin
-peptide hormone released by thyroid
-slightly decreases blood calcium
-increases bone mass
Pancreas
-acts as both exocrine and endocrine gland
-releases peptide hormones insulin and glucagon
-somatostatin is released by pancreas theta cells and inhibits insulin and glucagon
-
Insulin
-peptide hormone released by beta cells of pancreas
-associated with high energy nutrients in the blood
-released when blood levels of carbs or proteins are high
and carbs are stored as glyogen in liver and muscles while fat is stored as adipose tissue
-lowers blood glucose levels
because when insulin bind sto membrane protein receptor cells become highly permeable to glucose
-intracellular metabolic enzymes are activated and translation and transcription rates are affected
Glucagon
-peptide hormone released by the pancreas
-opposite effects of insulin
-stimulates glycogenesis, the breakdown of glycogen
-acts via second messanger cAMP
-breaks down adipose tissue
-net effect: raise blood glucose levels
Parathyroid Glands
-attached to back of thryoid
-releases parathyroid hormone (PTH)
Parathyroid hormone (PTH)
-peptide, increases blood calcium
-increases renal calcium reabsorption and renal phosphate excretion
-regulated by calcium ion plasma concentration
Male Reproductive System
-gonads called testes
-production of sperm occurs in seminiferous tubules of the testes
seminiferous tubulues contain spermatogonia which arise from epithelial tissue and become spermatocytes, spermatids, and then spermatozoa
Follicle stimulating Hormone (FSH)
-peptide hormone produced by anterior pituitary
-stimulates sertoli cells that surround and nurture spermatocyte and spermatids and also secrete inhibin, a peptide hormone that inhibits FSH..negative feedback!
Leutinizing Hormone (LH)
peptide horomone released from anterior pituitary
-stimulateds leydig cells which release testosterone
Spermatid
characteristic of typical cell
-turns into spermatozoon it loses cytoplasm and forms the head (nuclear material and acrosome which has enzymes for penetrating egg), midpiece and tail
Spermatozoon
develops from spermatid
-has three parts
-once in tubule lumen, it is carried to the epididymus to mature
-upon ejaculation, carried through vas deferens into the urethra and out of penis
Semen
-composed of fluid from seminal vesicles, prostate and bulbourethral glands and spermatozoons
Female Reproductive System
-FSH stimulates growth of granulosa cells around the primary oocyte
-granulosa cells secrete a viscous substance around the egg called zona pellucida and now structure is called primary follicle
-Theca cells differentiate from intersitial tissue and grow around follicle to form a secondary follicle
-Follicle grows and bulges from ovary when LH stimulates theca cells to secrete androgen converted to estradiol by the granulosa cells in prsense of FSH
-just before ovulation, estradiol levels rise and cause dramatic increase in LH called the luteal surge (positive feedback)causing follicle to burst
-egg is swept into fallopian tube and remaining portion of follicle is left to become corpus luteum
-corpus luteum secretes estradiol during pregnancy or if no pregnancy degrades into corpus albicans
Menstrual Cycle
-Cycle described in female reproductive system card
-three phases:
-follicular phase: begins with development of follicle and ends with ovulation
-luteal phase: begins with ovulation ends with degeneration of the corpus luteum into corpus albicans
-flow: shedding of uteran lining for approx 5 days
Fertilization
-occurs in fallopian tubes
-enzymes in acrosome of sperm released upon contact with egg
-entry of sperm causes cortical reaction preventing other sperms from fertilizing egg
-oocyte goes through second meitoic division to become ovum
-fertilization occurs when nuclei of ovum and sperm fuse to form zygoe
Embryology
-cleavage begins while zygote is in fallopian tube
-goes through mitosis and when it is eight or more cells is called a morula
-at morula stage embryo does not grow during cleavage
-cells continue to divide for four days and form a holla ball filled with fluid called a blastocyte made up of stem cells
-blastocyte lodges in the uterus during implantation and female is pregnant!!
Male Reproductive System
-gonads called testes
-production of sperm occurs in seminiferous tubules of the testes
seminiferous tubulues contain spermatogonia which arise from epithelial tissue and become spermatocytes, spermatids, and then spermatozoa
Follicle stimulating Hormone (FSH)
-peptide hormone produced by anterior pituitary
-stimulates sertoli cells that surround and nurture spermatocyte and spermatids and also secrete inhibin, a peptide hormone that inhibits FSH..negative feedback!
Leutinizing Hormone (LH)
peptide horomone released from anterior pituitary
-stimulateds leydig cells which release testosterone
Spermatid
characteristic of typical cell
-turns into spermatozoon it loses cytoplasm and forms the head (nuclear material and acrosome which has enzymes for penetrating egg), midpiece and tail
Spermatozoon
develops from spermatid
-has three parts
-once in tubule lumen, it is carried to the epididymus to mature
-upon ejaculation, carried through vas deferens into the urethra and out of penis
Semen
-composed of fluid from seminal vesicles, prostate and bulbourethral glands and spermatozoons
Female Reproductive System
-FSH stimulates growth of granulosa cells around the primary oocyte
-granulosa cells secrete a viscous substance around the egg called zona pellucida and now structure is called primary follicle
-Theca cells differentiate from intersitial tissue and grow around follicle to form a secondary follicle
-Follicle grows and bulges from ovary when LH stimulates theca cells to secrete androgen converted to estradiol by the granulosa cells in prsense of FSH
-just before ovulation, estradiol levels rise and cause dramatic increase in LH called the luteal surge (positive feedback)causing follicle to burst
-egg is swept into fallopian tube and remaining portion of follicle is left to become corpus luteum
-corpus luteum secretes estradiol during pregnancy or if no pregnancy degrades into corpus albicans
Menstrual Cycle
-Cycle described in female reproductive system card
-three phases:
-follicular phase: begins with development of follicle and ends with ovulation
-luteal phase: begins with ovulation ends with degeneration of the corpus luteum into corpus albicans
-flow: shedding of uteran lining for approx 5 days
Fertilization
-occurs in fallopian tubes
-enzymes in acrosome of sperm released upon contact with egg
-entry of sperm causes cortical reaction preventing other sperms from fertilizing egg
-oocyte goes through second meitoic division to become ovum
-fertilization occurs when nuclei of ovum and sperm fuse to form zygoe
Embryology
-cleavage begins while zygote is in fallopian tube
-goes through mitosis and when it is eight or more cells is called a morula
-at morula stage embryo does not grow during cleavage
-cells continue to divide for four days and form a holla ball filled with fluid called a blastocyte made up of stem cells
-blastocyte lodges in the uterus during implantation and female is pregnant!!
After implantation
-egg releases peptide hormone called human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG)which prevents degeneration of corpus luteum and maintains secretion of progesterone and estrogen
-placenta is formed from tissue of mother and egg and takes over hormone production
determination
-process after eight cell stage where a cell becomes committed to a specialized developmental path
differentiation
specialization that occurs at the end of the development forming a specialized tissue cell
gastrula
-occurs in second week after fertilization through gastrulation
-forms three primary layers: ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm
ectoderm
-develop into outer coverings of body such as the outer layers of skin nails and tooth enamel and into cells of nervous system and sense organs
endoderm
-develops into lining of digestive tract and into liver and pancrease
mesoderm
-stuff that lies between the inner and outer covering of body: muscle, bone, and the rest
Third week after fertilization
-gastrula develops into a neural through neurulation where the notochord(from mesoderm) induces the overlying ectoderm to thicken and form neural plate
-neural plate forms into neural tube and becomes spinal chord, brain and nervous system
-induction occurs when one cell type affects the direction of differentation of another cell type
apoptosis
programmed cell death which is part of normal cell development
-regulated by protein activity, which are present but inactive in a healthy cell
-in mammals mitochondria plays vital role in apoptosis