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30 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
How would you properly INTERSPERSE TREATMENTS?
-done to negate possibility of getting bad samples
-purposely/logically place treatments and controls in a block and randomly choose the position, putting the others in place accordingly to ensure good interspersion

-Randomized block design
-Latin square design
-... these designs are great, but not always possible (eg:mine/mill affluent pollution, nuclear pollution)

When statistically analysing data, correlation between mean and standard deviation is insignificant.

You want to avoid this and you usually have to log transform the data to do it!!!
-in the ideal situation, taking the log of mean and s: mean increases and s remains the same, therefor can do statistical analyses

***Remember, if shit hits the fan, throw a log at it***
What are some ways to making sites match better?
Z-Score the data
-take the avg's of the data either horizontally (better) or vertically (not as good)
-take the avg's of the avg's to ensure they are equal
-subtract the avg of the horizontal data to from the corresponding row
-use that new transformed data to analyze

-what we'll see now is that the data will be shifted to a similar starting point (ie:0) yet retain the same variance, this will make analyses much easier and clearer
What 4 steps would you take to increase the power of a study design?
1) Increase the number of replicates at all levels possible

2) Decrease the variability of the replicates (ie: blocking sample sites, increase size of samples, match study sites, transform the data, z-score the data)

3) Power increases as the diff between treatments increases (shows obvious effect. Doesn't mean increasing the dose!!!)

4) Power increases as you decrease the number of groups being compared

**If you want to show impact, compare extremes duh!!!**
How would you decrease the variability of the replicates?
-block sample sites
-increase size of sample
-match study sites
-transform the data
-z score the data
What are the 4 primary mechanisms of insecticide resistance?
1) Behaviour
2) Decrease in Cuticular penetration
3) Increase in Detoxification
4) Decrease in sensitivity of target site

Resistant animals work well in polluted environments as well as in unpolluted environments.

-resistant animals in polluted environments suck in unpolluted environments
-because they use energy to make useless enzymes
What 2 methods are available to organisms to resist metal toxicity?
1) Keeps metals at bay
2) Takes the metals up and deals with it appropriately (ie: storage)
In regards to population, what does the variation in resistance/tolerance involve?
1) Genetic Variation
-diff genotypes
-Darwinian fitness (in a polluted enviro, resistant organism fitness is GREATER then the susceptibility organism fitness; in an unpolluted environment, resistant organism fitness is LESS THAN susceptible organism fitness)

2) The ability to acclimatize to different levels of pollution
-physiological adaptation to pollution
What measures are used to determine Richness, Indices, and Dominance at the community level?
-species richness (S)

-Margalef D(mg)

-Berger Parker (d)
-Simpson's D
-look at multiple variables
-seriously ups the confusion level
-the purpose of multvariate analysis is to treat multivariate data as a whole, summarizing the data and revealing their structure
-the distance between 2 species plotted on a species graph
-shows the similarities between 2 different spp
-the closer, the better
1) Monitoring to look at human health and environmental health

2) Must be selective in what we monitor. Can't get everything

3) Biological monitoring is expensive. Therefor must design programs that answer
-what to monitor and why?
-where to monitor and why?
-when to monitor and why?
-how to monitor and how to analyze the results.

4) Don't just simply monitor. Understand the operation to minimize the release of shit.
What are the 2 types of mine types used to mine uranium in SK?
1) Open pit
-produces lots of waste rock
-dug out in a stepwise process
-radon is dispersed in wind
-contaminated water is intercepted with wells around pit, treated and released

2) Underground mine
-much less waste rock
-drifts are dug around the ore body
-water brings in radon; dealt with in terms of ventilation or from preventing the flow of water by concreting the surfaces or frezing the area

**in the end, we get waste rock - if clean, used as construction
-if contaminated slightly, covered with till and re-veg
-if contaminated heavily, store back in pit**
What are the steps involved in ore mining?
1) Excavation of ore

2) Process of ore milling
-pretty much a chemical factory
-can we reduce the use of chemicals?

3) Storage of solid waste (tailings)
-85% of radioactivity is left behind
Stored in:
-dam shallow valley, direct surface water
-engineered surface structure above the water table
-use a mined out pit constructed of previous surround, reduce bulk flow through tailings. Loss of contaminants through diffusion

4) Contaminated Water Release
-water is treated and released
-usually gets diluted to a safe level
What is the framework for ecological risk assessment?
Problem Formulation
-how to assess

Exposure Characterization
-estimate exposure

Ecological effects characterization
-dose response
-indirect effects
-assessment endpoint

**Gather data, verify, monitor and then...**

Characterize the Risk
What is an EEM program?
-Environmental Effects Monitoring Program
-conducted to identify and evalutate any effects of effluents on fish, fish habitat (benthic invertebrates), and the use of fisheries resources in the receiving water
What steps are taken in biological monitoring phases?
Initial Monitoring
-is there an effect?
-is the effect mine/mill related?

Focused Monitoring
-How bad is it?
-define the extent and magnitude of the effect

Investigation of cause
-where is the problem coming from?
-what do we need o know to do something about it?
When doing an EEM on fish, what endpoints are we concerned with?
-survival age
-energy use (growth; weight and length)
-energy storage (gonad and liver size)
-condition factor
-fecundity (how many eggs can she make) and egg size
-gonad developement
-reproductive hormones
-mixed function oxidase induction
-tissue metals
-tracers of exposure
-bridges the gap between lab and field
-improves environmental relevance of lab studies
-controls variables encountered in the field
What are the steps in mining ore?
Ore from mine

-reduces rock o sand

-dissolve uranium and other contaminants

Counter Current Design Washing
-separate dissolved materials from solids

Solvent Extraction
-separate shit

Yellowcake Precipitation
-recover uranium product and sell
-crystalize it and sell as fertilizer

Bulk Neutalization
-treatment of waste streams from CCD (solids) and solvent extraction (liquids)
-there may be no way of knowing hether an effect observed in the data is a result of a change in the variable of interest, or is due to changes that have occurred in other variables at the same time
-where a difference in two proportions disappears or even reverses when the proportions are considered separately for different groups of observations
How do you use Sorenson's Quantitative Index?
Cn=2jN/(aN + bN)

-Cn= Sorenson's quatitative index (similarities)
-jN = the sum of the lower of the 2 abundances for each taxon common to both sites
-aN = the total number of individuals in site A
-bN = the total number of individuals in site B

**best to use log transformed data (log [x+1])**
How do you determine which genera are most tolerant to pollution?
-genera that are present in all lakes and show little reduction in density in the most polluted environment
How do you determine which genera are most sensitive to pollution?
-sensitive genera are severly reduced or absent from heavily polluted environments
How do you determine which genera are of intermediate sensitivity to pollution?
-intermediately sensitive genera are only severly reduced or absent in most polluted environments
What's the difference between SPP RICHNESS & SPP DIVERSITY?
-Diversity refers to the variation of the spp in the ecosystem (Qualitative)
-Richness refers to the number of diff spp in the ecosystem (Quantitative)

**eg: can have lots of different but similar fish, therefore, low diversity, high richness; and vice versa**
When would you log transform data?
-if there is correlation between variance and mean
-if the data is skewed
-if the variance is larger than the mean
Does the index of tolerance increase or decrease with more generations?

-think about it, more generations = more selection = more resistance super things