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63 Cards in this Set

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Flagellum
are elongated whip-like extentions of the basal body, in eukaryotes they are composed of a 9+2 arrangment but lack this in prkaryotes,
Cilium
hair like extentions of the basal body; are composed of a 9+2 arrangment; they line fllopian tubes and air ducts leading to the lungs
Pseudopodium
rounded fleshy extentions of the plasmalemmaand cytoplasma
Central Vacuole
large vacuole filled with air that is found in the center of plant cells
Contractile Vacuole
COntrols the excretion of excess cytoplamic water from they cytolplama of animal and protozoan cells; regulates and maintains normal osmotic (water) pressure
Granum
a stack of Thylakoids in inside the cloroplast; contains pigment molecules of enzymes; controls Chemiosmosis and the light dependent reactions of photosynthesis
Leucoplast (Amyloplast)
A plastid that dehydrates glucose to produce amylose for storage as an excess food molecule
Chloroplast
A plastid having molecules of chlorophyll, xanthophyll, and carotene imbedded in the thylakoid memranes of the grana; controlls photosynthesis
Stroma
The plasma (liquid) of a chloroplast; grana float in the liquid; the Calvin Cycle of photosynthesis occur here (the dark reactions)
Thylakoid
one flattened membranious sac like compartment of a granum; contains imbedded pigment molecules and ATP Synthesis and the Chemiosmosis of ATP
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (RER)
serves as the atchment site for ribosomes; helps in the collection and packaging of product molecules for the Golgi cristernae; is closely related to secretion
Golgi Secretory Vesicle
A small rounded vesicle which leaves the trans face of the Golgi apparatus, fuses with the plasmalemma and secretes enzyme and hormone molecules out of the cell
Peroxisomes
Membrane bound Golgi vesicles that possess the enzyme catalase for the catalysis of H2O2
Lysosome
Membrane bound golgi vesicles that possess hydrolytic enzymes for the intracellular digestion of food
Golgi Cristernae
Membranous flattened sac like disks responsible for the collection and packaging of enzyme and hormone molecules (AKA golgi body)
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (SER)
An attachment site for enzyme sytems involved in the synthesis of lipid sterols and the enzymes the detoxify morphine, codeine, cocaine, alcohol, and heroin
Nucleus
The lack of this is the primary trait for the Eubacteria and the Archeabacteria; the presence of this is the primary trait of the Eucarya
Nucleolus
a storage site for molecules of r-RNA; upon decompsition its r-RNA molecules become/ procuce ribosomes
Chromatin
Composed of DNA nucleotides and genes; controls the prosess of transcription and replication and the prosess of translation, mitosis, and meiosis indirectly
Cytoskelton
composed of a variety of actin microfilements, tubulin microtubles and vimentu, and myosin fibers; has contractile properties; is involved in the contractiona and extention of muscle fibers; serves as an attachment site for enzyme systems; is attached to the plasmalemma by peripheral proteins; controls cell shape and motility
Mitochondrion
has its own circular plasmid composed if DNA genes; can self replicate; originally was heterotrophic prokaryote involved in endosymbiosis; controls the Krebs Cycle and glycolysis; has cristae and stroma, has porphyrin ring molecules each with an FE core; uses glucose and oxygen, produces carbon dioxide water and ATP, in the presnece of ATP synthesis and produces ATP by the process of chemiososis
Chlorplast
Has its own circular plasmid composed of DNA genes, can self replicate, was origanally autotrophic prokaryote involved in endosymbiosis; has porphyrin ring moleces each with a Mg core; controls photolysis and the Calvin Cycle, produces glucose and oxygen, uses carbon dioxide, water and ATP, in the prcess of ATP synthesis, and produces ATP by the process of chemiosmosis
Basal Body
composed of 9 triplets of microtubules; serves as an attachment site of a cillium or a flagellum to the plasmalema and cytoplasm
Centrioles
Has their own circular plasmid composed of DNA genes; can self replicate; is composed of the 9 arrangment of microtubules; was origanilly a prokaryotic bacterium involved in endosymbiosis
Neuralemma
in neurons, is composed of phospholipids and the 6 major kinds of protien molecules; it controls the production of an action protential and the electrochemical transmistion of an impules
Plasmalemma
in animal and protozoan cells, it controlls the endocytosis of cellsand liquids that leads to the formation of food vacuoles; it controls the exocytosis of wate particles and the secretion of enzymes and hormones; has a phospholipid bilayer with attached glycoproteins and glycolipids that is impermeable to polar hydrophilic molucles and ions and permeable to non-polar hydrophobic molecules
Exoskeleton
in arthropod bodieds is composed of chitin molecules (invertebrates)
Sarcolemma
in muscle fibers it is composed of phospholipids with the 6 major kinds or protien molecules
Actin
Protein molecule that forms the "thick microfilements" and the "thing microfliments" of the cytoskeleton of a mscle fiber
Keratin
Protein molecule that forms the protein fibers of epithelial cells in vertebrates and the protien fibers of nails hair claws and scales
Tubulin
Protien molecule that forms the microtubules of the cytoskeleton basal body centrioles cilium and flagellum
Endoskeleton
the skeleton of vertabrate animals
Vimentum
Protien molecule that forms the intermediate fibers of the cytoskeleton
Adhesion and peripheral
the kind of protein molecule that attaches the cytoskeleton to the plasmalemma
what are the 4 parts of all cells?
Cytosol (composed of water and solutes) ribosomes (composed of r-RNA), Plasma Membrane (composed of phospholipids and protiens), Chromosomes (composed of DNA genes)
Epithial Tissue
Animal, covers and protects organs, is secretory, secrets saliva, tears, oils and waxes
Nervous Tissue
Animal, can produces and transmit adn recieve and transmit an electrochemical actin potential
Muscle Tissues
Animal, has contractile and extention properties, controls movement peristalisis and motility
Connective Tissue
Animal, provides the body with its structual protien compnents, provides biochemical antibodies and immunities
Vascular Tissue
Plant, translocated water mineral ions sugars and hormones within the entire body
Dermal Tissue
Plant, covers and protects organs, is secretory, secretes cutin in the shoot and suberin in the root
Ground Tissue
Plant, They surround support and protect the vascular tissues, they are specially evolved for the storage of excess foods in the form of oils and starches
Meristem Tissue
Plant, is mitotic, controls binary fission, controls all growth in size in all body tisses and organs
Plasmodesmata
Found only in plants, connect one cell to another, allow diffusion and osmosis of water and solutes from cell to cell
Gap Junction
Pors found between the cardiac muscle cells that allow the diffusiona dn osmosis of water and solutes from cell and cell
Pits (pores)
found between xylem vessels, xylem tracheids, and phloem sieve tubes, allow the diffusion of solutes and water from cell to cell wither upward in the xylem or downward in the phloem
Hyperosmotic (Hypertonic)
The solution with the higher concentration of solutes
Plasmolysis
The shrinking of cell cytoplama due to the loss of water pressure and water volume
Hypoosmotic (Hypotonic)
the solution with the lesser concentration of solutes
Osmosis
Refers to the diffustion of water molecules through a selectively permeable mebrane along a concentration gradient
Isomotic (Isotonic)
Solution with equal concentration of solutes
Concentration
The number of solute molecules per known volume
Active Transport
Referes to any process in which the cell must expand ATP energy in order to "take in" or "send out" a molecule or particle; pinocytosis phagocytosis and endocytosis are all types
Diffusion
Referes to the movement of atoms, ions or molecules along a concentration gradient from greater to lesser concentration
Passive Transport
refers to any process in which the cell does not expand ATP energy in order to "take in" or "send out" a molecule or particle; faciliated diffusion though a protien carrier
Exocytosis
the secretion of enzymes and hormones with a vesicle though the plasmalemma
Turgor Pressure and Osmotic Pressure
The amount of water pressure in the cytoplama that is pushing outward against the plasmalemma
Cytolysis
the bursing of a cell ddue to an increase in water pressure and volume
Endocytosis
The ingestion of viruses or bacteria though a cell membrane that forms a vacuole
the part of the potato plant we used
the stem and the bulb and the organ
what do potato tuber cells store
chitin
what are potato tuber cell walls held together by
middle lemma, which is a layer of molecules composed of pectin
Water Potenial
A measurement of the tendency of waer molecules to diffuse from a hypotonic solution into a hypertonic solution, and determines the osmosis of water down an osmotic gradient