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48 Cards in this Set

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explain autotrophs
get their energy from 'self'. get their energy from sunlight, use light energy to synthesize organic molecules
explain heterotrophs
get their energy from 'eating others' consumers of other organisms, consume organis molecules
how are autotrophs and heterotrophs related?
autotrophs produce the organic molecules that heterotrophs consume
what is the photosynthesis equation?
6CO2+6H2O+light+light energy=C6H12O6+602
what is the stroma?
fluid in the chloroplast, calvin cycle occurs here
what is the grana?
stacks of thylakoids, light reactions occur here
what are thylakoids?
contain chlorophyll
what is chlorophyll?
pigment that captures light for photosynthesis.
what are the two stages of photosynthesis?
light dependent reactions & light-independent reactions/calvin cycle
what are the three stages of cell respiration?
glycolysis, Krebs Cycle, e.t.c./chemiosmosis
what are the inputs of glycolysis?
glucose, 2NAD, 2ATP, 2ADP+2P
what are the inputs of the Krebs Cycle?
2 acetyl groups, 2ADP+2P, 6NAD, 2FAD
what are the inputs of the e.t.c./chemiosmosis?
what are the outputs of glycolysis?
2 pyruvic acids, 2NADH, 4ATP (net 2)
what are the outputs of the Krebs Cycle?
4CO2, @atp, 6NADH, 2FADH2
what are the outputs of the e.t.c./chemiosmosis?
34-36 ATP
how many ATP are produced in cell respiration?
what are some intermediate molecules?
pyruvate, NADH, FADH2
what is the equation for cellular respiration?
what are the major events in the energy investment phase of glycolysis?
1)phosphorylation of glucose by ATP
2)re-arrangement & phosphorylation by ATP
3)6-carbon molecule split into two 3-carbon PGAL molecules
what is the role of coenzyme A?
it becomes acetyl CoA which enters the Kreb's Cycle
how does the e.t.c. generate energy?
it moves electrons down the chain releasing a small amount of energy
how does chemiosmosis work?
it moves H+ from mitochondrial matrix to intermembrane space
what is the role of ATP synthase?
it creates a gradient for hydrogen which creates ATP as it moves through it
what are the two types of fermentation?
lactic acid & alchohol
what happens in lactic acid fermentation?
pyruvate=lactic acid
what happens in alchohol fermentation?
pyruvate=CO2 & ethanol
how do proteins and fats contribute to cell production of energy?
FATS:broken down into glycerol (PGAL) and fatty acids (acetyl CoA)
PROTEINS: digested to amino acids=ammonia (carbon skeleton in cell respiration)
what are some advantages and disadvantages to anaerobic respiration?
-provides rapid burst of ATP-low energy yield-lactate is toxic to cells-can lead to oxygen debt (amount needed to restore ATP and rid body of lactate)
what is phosphrylation and how does it provide energy to molecules?
-when ATP does work, it transfers its 3rd P to other molecules-releases energy and destabilizes other molecule
why is ATP a good energy storage?
because each P is difficult to add so there is a large amount of stored energy closely packed
what is the structure of ATP?
what is energy coupling?
it uses exergonic (catabolic) reactions to fuel endergonic (anabolic) reactions
a molecule is oxidized when it __________
loses an electron
in cellular respiration______ is oxidized and _______________is reduced
most of the ATP produced in cellular respiration comes from___________
describe the electron transport chain
electrons pass from one carrier to another, releasing a little energy at each step
an electron carrier acts as an enery-storage molecule when it is __________ (for example ____________)
the function of cellular respiration is to _______
extract usable energy from glucose
what is reduced in this reaction: C6H12O6+6O2=6CO2+6H2O
the principal hydrogen-atom carrier molecules in cells are composed of
a small amount of ATP is made in glycolysis by ____
the transfer of a phosphate group from a fragment of glucose to ADP (subtrate level phosphorylation)
a chemist has discovered a drug that blocks an enzyme that catalyzes the second reaction in glycolysis. He wants to use the drug to kill bacteria in people with infections. But he can't do this because__________
human cells also perform glycolysis;the drug could also poison them
name a pathway found in all organisms
during respiration in a eukaryotic cell, reactions of glycolysis occur or are located in or on
the cytosol
most of the NADH that delivers high-energy electrons to the elctron transport chain comes from ________
the Krebs Cycle
In an experiment mice were fed glucose containin a small amount of radioactive oxygen. The mice were closely monitered and in a few minutes radioactive oxygen atoms showed up in
carbon dioxide
why is the Krebs Cycle called a cycle?
the two carbon acetyl CoA binds to a 4-carbon molecule that is restored at the end of the cycle