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69 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
chromatin = DNA + proteins
unit of DNA governing a trait
point where sister chromatids of a duplicated chromosome connect
series of repeated nucleotides found at either end of a chromosome
prevent enzymes from removing gene ends
prevent joining of chromosome ends during duplication
one of two strands of duplicated DNA and protein forming a duplicated chromosome. Stands are referred to as "sister ______"
daughter chromosomes
chromosomes that result when a duplicated chromosome splits
cellular reproduction
produces daughter cell offspring
asexual repro
repro not involving fusion of gametes
sexual repro
union of gametes from 2 parents
budding, root propagation, cell division (binary fision, meiosis, mitosis)
binary fision
asexual cell division in prokaryotes
mitotic cell divison
produces genetically identical daughter cells
meiotic cell division
makes 4 hapliod cells from 1 dipliod cell; gametes not genetically the same
cell life cycle
sequence of events that occurs from on cell division to the next
cell life cycle
typically: a long growth period used to prepare for
a short cell division segment
eukaryotic cell cycle
interphase, mitotic cell divison
cell gets nutrients from environment, grows, duplicates DNA, and grows some more
G1, S, G2 phases
in non-repro cells just a G0 phase (maintenance phase)
mitotic cell division
mitosis and cytokinesis
nuclear division with 4 parts
prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase
cytoplasm division (equally between 2 daughter cells)
protein sites in centromere where spindles attach to each sister chromatid (tug of war)
evolved from mitosis so many structures and events are similar/same
meiotic cell division
little or no interphase between I and II; no duplication of DNA between meiosis I and II
meiosis I
chromosome condensation, nucleolus disappears, nuclear envelope disintegrates, spindle formation, and attachment to kinetochore
sites of crossing over
an entire set of stained chromosomes from a single cell
3 ways everyone looks different
shuffling of homologues creates novel combinations of chomosomes; crossing over also creates novel chromosomes; the fusion of gametes creates additional genetic combos
gregor mendel
father of genetics
p generation
true-breeding parents
F1 generation
offspring of P generation
F2 generation
offspring of F1 generation
each trait is determined by pairs of discrete physical units
each gene has 2 forms
true breeding organisms
organisms have 2 of the same allele for a given gene
law of segregation
pairs of genes on homologous chromosomes separate from each other during gamete formation so that each gamete receives only one allele of an organisms pair of genes
law of segregation
tells us how we inherit "a" trait from one generation to the next
punnett square
a way to predict the genotypes and phenotypes of offspring
test cross
used to determine whether a single trait showing dominance is home or heterozygous
test cross
done by crossing the dominant with a homozygous recessive organism
PP x pp = Pp = all dominant
if homozygous dominant then all offspring will express dominant trait

example of this would look like?
Pp x pp = 1/2 Pp and 1/2 pp
if heterozygous then half will show dominant trait and half will be recessive

this looks like?
law of independent assortment
the alleles of one gene may be distributed to gametes independently of the alleles of other genes
law of independent assortment
applies when the genes are on different pairs of chromosomes
they tend to be inherited as a group
how are genes on the same chromosomes inherited?
genes are said to be
crossover and genetic recombination
sex linked gene inheritance
sex chromosomes
X and Y
sex linked
genes that are on one sex chromosome but not on the other
78 genes
1000+ genes
do mendelian laws apply in all cases?
incomplete dominance
ex- red RR, pink RR' white flowers R'R'
A, B, O blood alleles
multiple alleles govern one trait

AB blood
single gene having multiple effects on phenotypes

SRY gene
human disorders
single gene and abnormal chromosome #
single gene
recessive, dominant, sex
abnormal chromosome number
sex, autosomal
recessive allele disorders
albinism, sickle cell anemia, cystic fibrosis (CFTR gene)
dominant allele disorders
cleft gene, freckles
dominant allele disorders
dwarfism Aa, embryonic death AA
recessive sex allele disorders
color blindness, hemophilia
abnormal autosomal disorders
produces an organism with 1 or 3 chromosomes, most die as embryo, trisomy 21, down syndrome