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54 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Most of the biologically significant features of water result from what characteristic of water molecules?
The polarity of the molecule
All three forms of RNA encoded by genes are directly involved in what process?
Which cellular process involves the use of DNA as a template for the synthesis of RNA?
A protein that would undergo glycosylation, modification of the glycosyl group and secretion would pass through organelles in which order?
ER, cis surface of Golgi, trans surface of Golgi, vesicle, cell membrane
In DNA molecules, the backbone of each individual strand is held together by...
phosphodiester bonds between the pentose molecules
What is part of an amino acid?
amino group, carboxyl group, R group
The type of bond that is formed when two atoms share one or more electrons is?
covalent bond
Which molecular feature is most responsible for the specific activity of a protein?
three dimensional shape
The type of bond that is formed by the attractive forces that result when one atom donates an electron to another form is...
ionic bond
Which cellular uptake process results in a large food particle being engulfed?
which cellular process involves molecules passing through a tunnel-like intergral protein until equilibrum is reached on both sides of the membrane.
facilitated diffusion
Which process requires the expenditure of energy by the cell?
active transport
Which of the following would you expect to find in a mitochondrium?
Which enzyme is ultimately responsible for the production of ATP during the oxidative phosphorilation portion of cellular respiration?
ATP synthase
Which structure accounts for most of the rigidity of a typical plant cell?
secondary wall
Which component of the cytoskeleton is made of strands of polymerized actin molecules?
Which is the correct sequence of electron flow through the electron transport of photosystem 2?
Primary electron acceptor, plastiqinone, cytochrome complex, plastocyanin
In which phase of the calvin cycle is the main objective to exchange a carboxyl group with a carbonyl group?
In which phase of cellular respiration is the majority of CO2 generated?
Krebs Cycle
What is the role of oxygen in cellular respiration?
ultimate electron acceptor
during photosynthesis, water molecules are split for what purpose?
To replenish electrons lost by reaction center chlorophyll
Which of the following happens during Krebs Cycle?
Storage of many high energy electrons
What is the 5-carbon accepton molecule for the introduced carbon atom in the Calvin cycle?
Ribulose biphosphate (RuBP)
What are phases of the Calvin cycle?
reduction, acceptor regeneration, carbon fixation
What molecule is used as the input for the Krebs cycle
acetyl CoA
What is the main effect of electron transport in cellular respiration?
formation of a proton gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane
The endosymbiant theory proposes that chloroplasts and mitochondria have evolved from
Chloroplasts appear grean because..?
they reflect light at the green portion of the spectrum
What is the net gain or loss of ATP molecules from the entire process of glycolysis?
gain of 2 ATP
In regard to a sex-linked gene, human males may be termed...?
The sugars in the two strands of DNA are oriented in opposite directions, resulting in the two strands to be
The sugar molecules found in DNA contain how many carbons?
What term refers to the tips of the DNA double helices?
During DNA replication, what direction along the DNA template does the DNA polymerase move?
In a metacentric chromosome, where is the centromere located?
midway between the tips
Whate term best describes the pairing of two homologues chromosomes observed during meiosis?
What causes a human embryo to develop as a male?
the presence of the y-chromosome in the cells of the gonadal tissue
The idea that a parent has two copies of a gene but randomly passes just one copy on to an offspring is contained in...?
law of segregation
Some cells enter a stationary phase in which they no longer have the ability to produce. In the cell cycle this phase is sometimes denoted as..?
Immediately prior to the synthesis of DNA, a cell must first synthesize a short stretch of RNA. The enzyme that is responsible for making this piece of RNA is termed...?
Any chromosome present twice in the somatic cells of both males and females is best termed:
an autosome
X-chromosome inactivation is best associated with:
Barr bodies
Which of the following characteristics of DNA is correct?
it is a highly negatively charged macromolecule
A microbial organism capable of growth on minimal medium is termed:
A strand of RNA being synthesized grows in what direction?
Before RNA synthesis can begin, the responsible polymerase must first bind to the DNA molecule at:
the promoter site
How many stop codons exist?
are positively charged proteins found in chromatin
The start codon initiates
What sort of potentially cancer-causing gene normally acts to stimulate mitosis?
a proto-oncogene
Rare nitrogen bases are often found in what molecule?
Where do restriction enzymes come from?
The phrase "snurps" pertains to:
an RNA-protein complex present in spliceosomes
During translation, what establishes the reading frame?
the start codon