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22 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
1/30 men
normal sperm count: 20-200 million/ml
count is less than 20 million/ml
Can have genetic cause (y chromosome)
antisperm antibodies
blood-testes prevents antibodies from getting to sperm
if barrier is broken, immune response can resu
inability to conceive after 1 year without contraceptives
1/6 couples have trouble concieving in US
90% physical basis
30% male infertility
60% female infertility
20% both
varicose vein in scrotum
too much heat near developing sperm and they cannot mature
genetic causes
lack of gene on Y chromosome that controls spermatogenesis
Pelvic inflammatory disease
bacteria infect reproductive organs
leading cause of female infertility (100,000 women/yr)
mutation in gene for androgen receptor
-androgen-regulated genes are required for spermatogenesis and sexual differentation
-testicular feminization
Hypothalamic-pituitary axis: controls ovulation
Polycystic ovarian syndrome: increased androgen levels lead to cysts
Premature ovarian failure: early menopause, not prepared for pregnancy
tissue builds up in uterus, cramping irregular bleeding
Causes scarring and inflammation
ectopic pregnancies
fertilized ovum implants on tissue other than endometrial lining of uterus
40-50 women die/year in Us
surgical problems
scar tissue does not allow implantation
female infertility + infections
STDs and other infections can damage reproductive organs
Infertility tests
Male: sperm checked for number, motility,and morphology
PCR used to check Y chromosome for deletions

Female: endometrial biopsy: used to "date" lining to see if it is out of sync hormonally
Laparoscopy- look for scar tissue, etc; invasive, useful
Assisted reproductive techonologies
replace source of male/female gamete, aid fertilization or pregnancy
Artificial insemination
donated sperm placed in woman's reproductive tract
1790: 1st pregnancy from AI
1953: methods for freezing/storing sperm
surrogate motherhood
woman carries pregnancy to term for women who cannot concieve and/or carry pregnancy
Custody rights given up at birth
may have contributed oocyte
In vitro fertilization
Sperm fertilizes oocyte in culture dish
Embryos transfered to oocyte donor's uterus for implantation
1978 first IVF child
20-30% sucess rate
higher rate of birth defects than natural birth
Intracytoplasmic sperm injection
IVF accompanied by injection of sperm into oocyte
Used in cases of low sperm count, abnormal sperm shape, sperm motility problems
May pass on infertility to next generation
Methods for improving IVF
Transfer embryos at blastocyst stage (further developed)
Culture fertilized ova and early embryos with cells that normally surround oocyte (provide growth factors)
Screen embyros for chromosome abnormalities
Gamete intrafallopian transfer
Oocyte and sperm placed together in woman's fallopian tube. fertilization occurs in body, more natural
Allows conception in cases of fallopian tube blockage
27% success rate, cheaper than IVF
Oocyte donation
Oocytes stored frozen (in metaphase II)
Women can have children later, undergoing chemotherapy, work w/ teratogens
Preimplantation genetic screening and diagnosis
Detection of genetic abnormalities
1 cell of 8-celled embryo removed, remaining cells complete dev't
1992: 1st child born following PGD to screen for CF allele
Fetal stem cells
IVF produces extra embryos, made up of embryonic stem cells- pluripotent cells
Therapeutic uses for these cells