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18 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
=uncontrolled cell division
carcinogens: substances that cause cancer by mutating DNA (radiation, chemicals, viruses)
Cancer tumors
Benign: tumor stays in 1 place and does not grow into surrounding tissues
Malignant: tumor is invasive and moves to other parts of body
(Metastasis- movement of cancer cells around body)
when mutated/expressed at abnormally high levels, converts cell into cancer cell
Causes cell to divide uncontrollably
tumor suppressor genes
genes whos products inhibit mitosis
=genes taht normally trigger cell division.
about 1% of 30,000 genes
produce anitgens recognized by immune system
Rapid devt can overwhelm immune system
Telomeres shorten as part of cell cycle control.
Cancer cells: turn telomerase back on so cell never gets signal to stop dividing.
Inherited v. Sporadic Cancers
Inherited cancer: caused by damage to both germline and somatic cells (germline cancers rare, possibly inherited, occur earlier in life than somatic cancers)

Sporadic Cancer: damage to somatic cells (cell grows uncontrollably)
2 hit hypothesis
If born w/ predispositions, need just 1 hit for it to occur. (germline, inherited cancer)
Need 2 hits for it to occur (sporadic cancer)
Characteristics of Cancer cells
Ignore normal control signals
Divide faster
Don't adhere to a surface
Heritable (give cancerous state to daughter cells)
Dedifferentiated (dont look like cell they formed from)
Lack contact inhibition (keep dividing)
Angiogensis (growth of new capillaries to bring blood to tumor)
Increased expression of oncogenes
located next to viral genes
moved next to an active gene
moved next to an antibody gene
Fusion proteins
proto-oncogene moves next to another gene and they are transcribed/translated together.

Philadelphia chromosome: tip of chromosome 9 translocated to 22; causes a type of leukemia
too strong division signal
Some cases of breast cancer
growth factor receptor
overexpress protein/ cell division
p53 gene
plays role in either DNA repair or apoptosis
may act as mediator b/w enviornment and cancer
normal gene activates transcription of genes that respond to p53
contributes to devt of breast cancer
brain tumor
loss of both p53 alleles
loss of several genes on chrom.9 that function in immune system
deletion of tumor suppressor genes
activation of an oncogene
loss of 1 or both copies of chrom.10
cancer treatment
surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, anticancer drugs (tamoxifen), stem cells?
Hormone disruptor
doesnt allow estrogen to attach