Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

22 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Central Dogma of gene expression
DNA-->Transcription--> mRNA--> Translation--> Protein
2 stages of protein synthesis
1.Transcription (copying info)
2.Translation (changing)
info in DNA (template strand) transcribed into mRNA by enzyme RNA polymerase
Transcription Factos
How a gene knows when to turn on/off
-Proteins taht bind DNA at specific sites
-Initiate transcription
-Bind to promoter region on DNA (start of gene)
-RNA polymerase binds to make mRNA
Types of RNA
mRNA= copy of gene, goes to ribosome
tRNA= carries amino acids to ribosomes (transfer)
rRNA= ribosomal RNA
Steps of Transcription
Initiation: binds transcription factors and RNA polymerase to promoter
Elongation: RNA polymerase adds nucleotides in 5'-3' direction
Termination: terminator sequence is reached
RNA Processing
Before leaving nucleus mRNA is processed
-5' cap
-3' poly A tail
-removal of introns(do not code for protein; cut out and coding regions spliced together)
mRNA--> Protein
Info in mRNA translated into protein
Uses genetic code
Genetic Code
Triplet code (3mRNA bases=1 amino acid)
Redundant, more than 1 codon (3 base sequence) can specify an amino acid
Unambiguous, universal
Steps of Translation
Initiation: mRNA, small ribosomal unit, and tRNA come together
Elongation: large subunit attaches, tRNA molecules bring amino acide to ribosome
Termination: stop codon reached
Protein synthesis
Release factor binds to codon and terminates process
How does tRNA know which amino acid to deliver?
tRNA= anticodon complementary to codon on mRNA
Protein structure
4 levels (3D shape)
Protein function dependent upon proper structure
Change in structure leads to change in function
Primary Structure
the sequence of amino acids
Secondary Structure
folding into loops, coils, helices, sheets
Dependent on primary structure
Tertiary Structure
further folding as a result of interactions w/ water
Hydrophic regions repelled by water, will fold inward
Hydrophilic regions attracted to water, will fold outward
Quarternary Structure
Joining together of more than 1 polypeptide
Protein folding
Many molecules help to achieve 3D structure
Protein families that help proteins fold w/in cells.(protein export/import, assist correct folding, inhibit misformed proteins)
Unfolded Protein response
Slow/stop protein synthesis if not folding properly
Increased synthesis of chaperonins and other folding catalysts
Restoration of proper folding
Protein tunnel that degrades misfolded proteins
Protein misfolding--> disease
Huntingtons Disease (protein huntington blocks proteasomes, leads to cell death)
Prion Disease (misfolded protein is infectious and causes other proteins to misfold)
Kuru Disase (human variant of prion diease, eat brain)
Chronic wasting in deer, elk