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95 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the male gonads?
Why are the testes outside the body?
Temp. 2 degrees cooler than the rest of the body.
2 functions of the testes?
produce sperm and testosterone
The general name for male hormones?
2 tissues in the testes + their function?
interstitial cells: produce testosterone, which stimulates the development of male 2ndary sex characteristics and controls sperm production.

seminiferous tubules: site of sperm produiction.
Where are the sertoli cells and what are their function?
in the walls of the seminiferous tubules, their function is to nourish and support the developing sperm.
Where is the location of spermatogenisis?
seminiferous tubules.
Give a description of spermatogenisis
Spermatogonia (46)

2 Spermatocytes (23)

4 Spermatids (immature sperm)

4 Spermatozoa (sperm)
What is the epididymus?
A coiled tube on the outer edge of the testes. It is where sperm become motile (flagella) + swim (about 4 days)
What is an acrosome?
On the head of the sperm, contains digestive enzymes to dissolve the coating of the egg so the sperm nucleus can penetrate the egg.
Detail the path of the sperm upon ejaculation.
Epididymus -> vas deferens -> Prostate gland -> urethra
Where do the vas deferens join together?
The prostate
What is a vasectomy?
Surgical procedure where the vas deferens are cut and tied off. sperm cannot leave during ejaculation so no pregnancy, although males are still capable of erection and ejaculation of seminal fluid.
What controls an erection?
The parasympathetic nervous system, although cerebrum (thinking) is involved.
What does the PNS control?
Arterioles in erectile tissue dilate, the sinuses fill with blood and veins are compressed, blocking the return of blood flow.
What does the SNS control?
The orgasm (ejaculation).
intense stimulation -> stimulates reflex center in lower spinal cord -> sends message to genitals -> peristaltic contractions of smooth muscle in walls of vas deferens -> ejaculation.
What is the function of Cowper's glands?
- 2 of them
- releases mucous like fluid for lubricating sperm
- pre-ejaculatory fluid
- cleanses + prepares urethra for sperm
- can contain enough sperm to cause pregnancy
What is the function of the prostate gland?
- one of them
- secretes most of the fluid found in semen
- milky fluid, aids motility
- sodium bicorbanate (basic) helps keep the sperm in the neutral environment, helsp neutralize acidic nature of the vagina.
- muscular contractions during ejaculation
What is the function of the seminal glands / vesicles?
- 2 of them
- near the base of the bladder
- secrete fructose (energy for sperm)
- secrete prostoglandins, which stimulate the female uterus to contract to help move sperm into uterus.
- secrete alkaline substances to buffer the acidic vagina.
What is impotence?
The inability to achieve or maintain an erection.
What type of hormone is testosterone?
Steroid hormone = lipid
What are the 3 functions of testosterone?
Stimulates spermatogenisis, stimulates male secondary sex characteristics and stimulates sex drive.
What do anabolic steroids cause?
increased muscle mass and aggressiveness, testes are pulled closer to the body.
What does a negative feedback loop for the male repro system look like?
hypothalamus releases GnRH which targets the pituitary. pituitary releases LH and FSH. LH targets the interstitial cells, which then release testosterone. Testosterone feeds back negatively to the pituitary and hypothalamus. FSH targets sertoli's cells, which initiates spermatogeneis. The hormone inhibin feeds back negatively to the pituitary. Together testosterone and the initiation of spermatogenisis cause the maturation of spermatozoa.
What are the female gonads?
What are the function of the ovaries?
To produce eggs and the hormones progesterone and estrogen.
What are the function of the fallopian tubes?
To carry the egg from the fallopian tube to the uterus after ovulation.
How do the fallopian tubes facilitate the movement of the egg?
The fimbrae sweep the egg into the duct, where cilia move the egg through the fallopian tube. Takes approximately 3-5 days.
What is the function of the uterus?
A hollow muscular organ that is approximately fist sized and inverted pear shaped. The fertilized egg develops here until birth.
What are the 2 layers of the uterus?
The myometrium (outer muscular layer which contracts for birth) and the endometrium (the inner glandular lining which nourishes the embryo and is shed during menstruation if no fertilization occurs.
What is the function of the cervix?
It is a narrow muscular opening between the uterus and the vagina, which secretes mucous (can prevent sperm from enterng the uterus). It essentially keeps the baby in the uterus.
When is there more fluid in the cervical fluid?
During ovulation, so the sperm can pass through more easily.
What is the function of the vagina?
It is the birth canal and passage for menstrual flow.
What are the vestibular glands?
Glands which secrete fluid into the vagina during sexual arousal to falicitate easier intercourse.
Why is the vagina of acidic nature?
To keep it clean and free of bacteria.
Is the vagina part of the urinary system?
What does the labia majora contain?
Sweat glands and pubic hair.
What does the labia minora contain?
No hair or sweat glands. Contains erectile tissue that is sensitive to sexual excitement.
What is the function of the clitoris?
Stimulation for sexual excitement. Analogous to the penis.
Where is oogenisis located?
The ovaries.
What are the two ovarian tissues?
Fibrous connective tissue and follicles.
What are follicles?
Primary ooycyte and granulosa cells (immature eggs)
What is oogenisis?
The process of enlargement and maturation of ovum froma diploid primary oocyte through meiosis to a haploid ovum.
Approximatey how many follicles begin to mature each menstrual cycle?
How many ova mature to ovulation?
1, except for in casses of fraternal twins, triplets, etc.
What is reflex ovulation?
Sometimes during the peak of female sexual excitement a second egg can be released.
What initiates mestruation?
It is initiated at puberty with the secretion of GnRH from the hypothalamus. It is monthly in primates and annual in most non-primates.
What are the phases of menstruation, in order?
The flow phase, the follicular phase, the ovulatory phase, and then the luteal phase.
What is the flow phase?
- Day 1-5
- The endometrium is shed
- 20 - 80 mL
- due to all hormones being low, especially progesterone.
- low estrogen and progesterone mean no negative feedback to the pituitary, therefore FSH and LH are allowed be secreted.
What is the follicular phase?
- Day 6-13
- follicles develop in the ovary
- FSH targets the follicles to mature
- folliclular cells produce estrogen
- estrogen stimulates the building of the endometrium and secondary sex characterestics.
- estrogen level rises high enough to feedback to the pituitary, which shuts off the production of FSH
- positive feedback: high levels of estrogen cause LH to increase
What is the ovulatory phase?
- Day 14
- ovulation occurs
- the secondary oocyte bursts from ovary due to a peak in LH production. It is swept to oviduct and then to the uterus
- LH is secreted from the pituitary gland, becasue progesterone is low and estrogen is high there is positive feedback.
- LH controls the development of the corpus luteum in the ovary from follicular cells.
What is the luteal phase?
- Day 15-28
- The corpus luteum develops in the ovary and secretes progesterone and some estrogen.
- Low gonadotropic hormones (FSH and LH) cause the degeneration of the corpus luteum 10-12 days following ovulation (day 26-28)
- the corpus luteum becomes the corpus albicans
- there is no more progesterone and estrogen, therefore no more stimulus to maintain the endometrium and the flow phase begins again.
What are the functions of progesterone?
- Maintains and develops endometrium
- Causes the secretion of glycogen into the endometrium (energy for embryo)
- Prevents uterine contractions to keep the endometrium intact
- Inhibits further ovulation by shutting down LH
How does the birth control pill work?
High progesterone shuts off LH and high estrogen shuts of FSH because of negative feedback.... no ovulation, therefore no chance of pregnancy.
When is the peak time for fertilization?
Anywhere from day 12-18.
What is amenorrhea?
Not menstruating, could be due to pregnancy, menopause or stress / low body fat.
Where does fertilization occur?
The fallopian tubes
How long after intercourse does conception occur?
45min - 6 hours
Why can only one sperm fertilize one egg?
A fluid layer develops beneath ovum membrane to prevent polyspermy after the egg is fertilized.
What is a blastocyte?
The embryo, approx 100 cells.
How long is the embryo in month 1?
7 mm
What is the function of the amnion?
The amnion envelops the fetus, protects it with fluid from infection, dehydration, impact and temperature.
What is the function of the chorion?
It is the outer membrane. It produces hCG which helps maintain the corpus luteum for the first three months of pregnancy. Chorionic villi are projections of the placenta that can test for defective cells.
What is the function of the yolk sac?
What is the function of the allantois?
Provides blood vessels for the placenta / umbilical cord.
What is the function of the placenta?
Provides nutrients, gases, and waste exchanges.
What is the ectoderm?
Skin, nervous system
What is the mesoderm?
Muscles, blood, reproductive system and bone.
What is the endoderm?
Digestive, urinary, liver, lungs.
What develops in the 2nd month?
Arms, legs, fingers, toes, sucking reflex
When is the developing baby referred to as a fetus?
At 9 weeks
What is the difference between a fetus and an embryo?
The fetus has everything it needs, it is now just growing.
At 3 months where does the progesterone come from?
The placenta
What develops during the second trimester?
face, hair, thumb sucking, eyelids, bone and all other systems are developed.
From what month can a fetus survive on its on with difficulty?
Month 7
What occurs during month 8?
Fat builds up, the testes descend to the scrotum
What occurs during month 9?
Mass is increased
What would happen if chorion did not form during development?
No hCG, no villi for placenta.
What happens in stage 1 of labour (parturition)?
The cervix dilates
What month to progesterone levels begin to drop and estrogen levels begin to increase?
Month 7
What does the hormone relaxin control and what releases it?
It relaxes the cervix and the pubic symphisis (a peice of cartilage attached to the pelvis)
What stimulates the release of oxytocin
Positive feedback from the cervix dilating.
What does oxytocin stimulate?
The uterus contractions.
What is meant by the expression "my water broke"?
The amniotic sac containing the fetus breaks and releases fluid.
Why do contractions come in increments with a period relaxation between each?
So the fetus can get fresh blood supply (02, nutrients, etc.)
What is stage 2 of labour?
Regular contractions and the expulsion of the fetus.
What is stage 3 of labour?
The afterbirth (10-45 mins after birth)
What is expelled in stage 3?
The placenta.
What hormones stimulate breast development?
Progesterone and Estrogen.
What stimulates the release of prolactin?
Dropping levels of progesterone.
What is the function of prolactin?
It stimulates breast lobes to produce two fluids:
- colostrum (milk sugar and proteins - not fats)
- milk (produced a few days after delivery)
How does positive feedback from a suckling infant control breast feeding?
Suckling stimulates the nerve endings in the nipple, which stimulates the release of oxytocin from the pituitary. Oxytocin causes smooth muscle contractions to force milk through ducts and out of the breast. It also targets weak contractions in the uterus to help it return to its normal size and shape.
What is the peak production of breast feeding?
1.5 L/day
What will happen if a breast feeding woman's diet is insufficient in calcium?
Her body will remove calcium from the mother's skeleton and teeth.
How does an infant attain antibodies?
mom's milk