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35 Cards in this Set

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What are the limits of cell growth?
Surface area, one copy of DNA
What controls the speed of cell growth?
Depends on function (type of cell - RBC compared to brain), and conditions.
What is uncontrolled cell growth?
Cancer
What are chromosomes?
Structures in a cell which contain the genetic information which is passed from one generation of cells to the next.
What does chromosome mean?
Colored body, because when you dye a cell during cell division, you can see them.
How many chromosomes do humans have?
46 (23 pairs)
What are homologous chromosomes?
Pairs of chromosomes similar in size, shape, as well as coding for the same genes and showing the same bonding pattern on karyotype.
What makes up the nucleus?
Chromatin
What makes up chromatin?
DNA and protein.
What does the centromere attach?
The centromere attaches two chromatids.
Where does the cell cycle begin and end?
From the beginning of one cell to two cells.
What happens in G0?
The cell is simply carrying out its functions, not preparing to multiply or divide.
What happens in G1?
The period of cell growth before the DNA is replicated.
What happens in S?
The period where the DNA is duplicated.
What happens in G2?
The period after DNA is duplicated and the cell prepares for division.
In interphase the chromosomes are replicated to __?
92
What is cytokinesis?
The division of the cytoplasm.
What is the function of mitosis in single-celled organisms?
Asexual reproduction -> to produce new organisms.
What is the function of mitosis in multicellular organisms?
Growth, repairing age or damaged tissue (wounds), replacing worn cells.
What are somatic cells?
Body cells - NOT GAMETES
What are the four phases of mitosis?
PMAT
What happens in prophase?
- chromosomes condense (seen easily under a microscope)
- nuclear membrane and nucleoli dissapear.
-centrioles migrate to the poles (animals only), asters form, spindles start to form
What happens in metaphase?
- Sister chromatids line up along the center (equator) of the cell.
- Centromeres are attached by spindle fibers to centrioles at the poles.
What happens in anaphase?
- sister chromatids (now chromosomes) seperate
- the centromere splits
- chromosomes pulled to the poles by spindle fibers.
What happens in telophase?
- chromosomes reach the poles and the nuclear membrane and nucleoli reform
- chromosomes begin to uncoil.
What happens in cytokenisis in an animal cell?
The cell pinches in around the equator, forming a cleavage, continuing until 2 cells result.
How do plant cells seperate.
- no centrioles, no asters.
- cell plate forms intead of cleavage / cytokenisis.
What is the defination of interphase?
2 daughter cells going through a period of growth and metabolism until it is time for them to divide again.
What is cloning?
Genetically identical offspring formed from 1 cell of an organism.
What is budding?
A new individual grows from parent
What is artificial cloning?
WHen a donor nucleus is placed in an enucleated egg. It develops into an organism identical to the donor.
What is a totipotent cell?
An unspecialized cell, a stem cell.
What causes cell ageing?
A limited number of possible cell divisions, ageing genes shut down by chemical reactions (grey hair), the cell lineage dies out (skin tissue no longer divides).
Can cancer cells adhere to other cells?
no
Would interphase of cancer cells be short or long?
short