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139 Cards in this Set

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Uniform distribution of human habitats would likely be the result of ________, whereas habitats of other animals would be due to_________.
HUMAN: Community planning
ANIMALS: Competition
Population size depends upon____.
Deaths, Births, migration, immigration
What are parts of the ecosystem:
energy, decomposers, producers, consumers
Which are some components of the abiotic (nonliving) environment:
soil, rainfall, temperature, sunlight.
What are some contributing factors in species extinction:
habitat loss, over harvesting, habitat fragmentation, illegal wildlife trading.
Conservation Biology includes…
Survey of biological diversity,
Look at evolutionary origins of diversity,
Efforts to maintain biodiversity
What is the cause for each species to be endangered:
Bald Eagle:_____
Golden Trout:_______
Black footed ferret:_______
Manatees:____________
Bald Eagle:DDT pollutant
Golden Trout: introduced species
Black footed ferret:disruption of food chain
Manatees: speed boats
From the video, what can be done to save an endangered species?
Captivity breeding
removal of non-native species
protect habitats
From the video species are important to us because_______.
clean the air
provide medicines
generate air for us to breathe
A clown fish is immune to the poision of sea anemones. It hides in the tentacles of sea anemones to aviod predators. Sea anemones gain nothing from this relationship. This is an example of what?
Commensalism
A transparent shrimp blends with it's environment. This is an example of what?
camouflage
What gas is important in the absorbtion of UV Radiation
O3 (Ozone)
Thermal Inversion
Occurs when rising air is blocked from rising further and keeps pollutants in an area and thus contribute to smog.
City famous for it's brown fog
Los Angeles
Acid rain causes what?
Toxic metals to become motile in the ecosystem
The two chemicals associated with acid deposition are___ and ____.
nitrogen and sulfur
Distribution of biomes are influenced by______.
topography
soil
latitude
climate
NOT LONGITUDE
A biome is characterized by what?
Vegetation
Animals
Climate
What are some of the reasons for rapid Human population explosion?
Increases in carrying capacity
Expansions into new habitats
Removal of limiting factors
longer generation times
A resonable method of limiting human population growth is to_.
Decrease the birth Rate
Biome with the greatest diversity of life.
Taiga
Biome that is a treeless plain around the Arctic Circle
Arctic Tundra
What zone is the greatest diversity of organisms in lake ecosystems found?
Thermocline
The Ocean Aoze that exhibits the greatest degree of species diversity
Neritic
Examples of Freshwater biomes
River
Stream
Lake
Examples of marine biomes
Coastal water
Open Ocean
Near Shore zone
Max rate of increase
per individual under
ideal conditions
Biotic potential
Group of individuals born during the same period of time
Cohort
S-shaped curve of a population growth
logistic growth
largest # of individuals sustainable by the resources in a given environment
Carrying Capacity
J-shaped curve of a population growth
Exponential growth
Essential resource that restricts population growth when scarce.
limiting factor
Marsh Hawk role in food chain
fourth-level consumer
Garter snake role in food chain
second-level consumer
Crow role in food chain
Third-level consumer
Cut worm role in food chain
herbivore
flowering plant role in food chain
primary producer
equatorial broadleaf forest
tropical rain forest
area where freshwater and sea water mix
estuary
type of grassland with trees
savanna
low growing plants at high latitudes or elevations
Tundra
Found at 30* N and 30* S Latitude
desert
Conifers dominate here
boreal forests
dry shrubland
chaparral
Composed of producers, consumers, decomposers, and thier abiotic environment
Ecosystem
All of the individuals of a single species living in a region constitute this
Population
A group of different species living together in a single habitat
Community
The basic functional unit of Ecology
Biosphere
Contains Biosphere, communities, and populations.
Ecosystem
Biome called the “basket of bread”
Grasslands
A number of food chains cross-connecting with one another is called a
Food Web
Energy stores by producers flows from herbivores then carnivores then decomposers.
A grazing food Web
Energy from producer flows mainly into detritivores and decomposers
A Detrital Food Web
The Main Reservoir of Water
The Ocean
Disruptive human action in the water cycle leads to
Salinization (salt build up)
The main reservoir for carbon
The ocean- The carbon is dissolved as Bi-carbonate and carbonate
The atmosphere – Exists as CO2 from aerobic respiration, Volcanoes, and fossil Fuel burning
Disruptive human action in the carbon cycle leads to
The greenhouse effect (Global Warming)
The main reservoir for nitrogen
Bacteria
Wastes
Bodies of dead organisms
Disruptive human action in the nitrogen cycle leads to
Nitrogen Loss
Nitrogen released into atmosphere
Soil and water become more acidic
Acid rain
Late growth of trees leading to damage by frost
Greatest Reservior for Phosphorus
Earth's Crust
Disruptive human action in the phosphorus cycle leads to
Eutrophication accelleration algeal blooms that use all oxygen in water from other organisms
Earth's major life zones are also known as
biomes
Number of endangered species
over 1,000
An endangered plant
presido manzania
Includes pre-, post, and reproductive age categories
reproductive base
a measured number of indiv. in some specified area
population density
sampling areas of same size, and shape, such as rectangles, squares, and hexagons
quadrats
The # of indiv. in some specified area or volume of a habitat
crude density
# of indiv. in each of several to many age categories
age structure
vital stats of a population
Demographics
examples of age categories in a population
pre-, post, and reproductive years
capturing mobile indiv., marking them and recapturing them after some time
Capture- release method
systematic study of how organisms interact with each other and thier physical and chemical environment
Ecology
Possible distribution patterns shown by a population
clumped, uniform, random
The general pattern in which individuals are dispersed in a specified area
population distribution
number of indiv. that represent the population;s gene pool
popultaion size
A graph line that emerges when ecologists plot a cohort's age-specific survival in a habitat
Survivorship curve
Reflects high survivorship until fairly late in life, then a large increase in deaths
Type I Curve
A group of indiv., tracked from the time of birth until the last one dies; data gathered such as # of offspring born to indiv. of each age interval
Cohort
Signifies a death rate that is highest early on; typical of species that produce many small offspring and do little, if any, parenting
Type III Curve
For each species, a set of adaptations that influence survival, fertility, and age at first reproduction
Life history pattern
Reflects a fairly constant death rate at all ages; typical of organisms just as likely to die of disease at any age such as lizards, small mammals, and large birds
Type II Curve
May show, for example, # of indiv. reaching some specific age (x)
survivorship schedual
Maximum rate of increase per individual under ideal conditions
biotic potential
Exerts effects in proportion to # of indiv. present. Ex. Competition for resources, predation, parasitism
Density-Dependent Control
Increases death rate w/o respect to # of indiv. present. Ex. Lightning, Flood, snowstorms
Density-Independent Factors
An interaction that directly helps one species but does not affect the other much, if at all.
Commensalism
Disadvantages flow both ways between species
Intraspecific Competition
This one has some constraining factors and does shift in some large or small ways over time as indiv. respond to a mosaic of changes
Realized niche
Generally means "living together"; commesalism, mutualism, and parasitism are all cases
Symbiosis
Possess physical and chemical features, ie. temp. and an array of species; and organism's "address"
Habitat
An interaction that directly benefits one species, the predator.
Predation
The one that might oprevail in the absence of competition and other factors that can constrain how indiv. get and use resources
Fundamental niche
The distinct sum of an organism's activities and relationships as it goes about getting and using the resources required for survival and reproduction; the "profession" and organism has.
niche
An interaction that directly benefits one species, the parasite
parasitism
Five categories having different effects on population growth
Indirect interactions
Where benefits flow both ways between the interacting species
mutualism
Two species of Paramecium are grown in the same culture but CANNOT coexist indefinitely...Example of what?
Competitive Exclusion
Two species of Paramecium are grown in the same culture and CAN coexist indefinitely...example of what?
Resource partitioning
Bristly foxtail grasses, Indian Mallow plants, and smartweed plants coexist in the same habitat...example of what?
Resource partitioning
Nine species of chipmunks live in different habitats on the slopes of the sierra Nevada...Example of what?
Interspecific Competition
A male mockingbird chases aways all other male mocking birds from it's territory...Exampple of what?
Intraspecific Competition
A process that begins when pioneer species colonize a barren habitat, such as a new volcanic Island
Primary succession
Included in this are Lichens and mosses
Primary succession
A disturbed area within a community recovers
secondary succession
This pattern is common in abandoned fields, burned forests, and volcanic disurbances
secondary succession
A rapid goegraphic dispersal mechanism, as when an insect might travel on a ship's cargo hold from an island to the mainland
Jump dispersal
An outcome of forces that have come into an uneasy balance
Community stability
Resident of an estabilshed community that has moved from it's home range and successfully taken up residence elsewhere; Caulerpa, Euro Rabbits, and kudzu are ex.
Exotic Species
A dominant species that can shape community structure; ex. the periwinkle
Keystone species
Residets of estabished communities move out from thier home range and successfully take up residence elsewhere, permaneantly insinuate themselves into a new community
Geographic dispersal
A type of consumer that dines on animals, plants, fungi, protistans, and even bacteria.
Omnivores
A type of consumer that eats a living hosts tissues but usually does not kill it
Parasites
An array of organisms and thier physical environment, all interacting through a one-way flow of energy and a cycling of raw materials
Ecosystem
A type of consumer that eats flesh
Carnivore
Feeds on tissues of other organisms; contains several sub-categories
Consumers
Heterotrophs that ingest decomposing organic matter; ex. crabs and earthworms
Detrivores
Type of consumer that eats plants
Herbivore
An animal consumer that ingests dead plants, animals or both all of the time or some of the time; Ex. vultures, termites, and many beetles
Scavengers
Feeds on the organic products and the remains of all organisms
Decomposers
All of the organisms in an __________ can be classified byt hier functional role in a hierarchy of feeding relationships called _________ Levels.
Ecosystem; Trophic
A _________ is a straight-line sequence of steps by which energy is stored in autotroph tissues enters higher trophic levels.
Food Chain
It is more accurate to think of food chains cross-connecting with one another, as a ____________.
Food Web
In most cases, ___________ that producers intitially capture passes through no more that ___________ trophic levels.
Energy; 4-5
All of the heat losses from an ecosystem represent a one-way flow of __________ out of the ecosystem.
Energy
There are two categories of food webs. In a ___________ food web, energy flows from photoautotrophs to herbivores, then through ______________.
Grazing; Carnivores
IN a __________ food web, energy flows from photoautotrophs through detrtitvores and __________________.
Detritial, Decomposers
Biological magnification, example, and why important to identify this concept.
When a non-degrating or slowly degrading substance becomes more concentrated in the tissues of an organism from higher trophic levels in a food web over time
Example: ?
Why important to identify:?
All trapped energy
Net amount
Shows how usable energy diminishes as it flows through ecosystems over time
Energy pyramid
All energy stored in growing plants
Gross primary production
A figure arrived at by subtracting the energy used by plants and soil organisms from the gross primary production
Net ecosystem production
Rate at which producers get and store an amount of energy in their tissues during a specified interval.
Primary productivity
A method ecologists use to represent trophic structure; primary producers are the base.
Ecological pyramid
Functions of the Hydrologic Cycle
Moves oxygen and hydrogen in the form of water molecules
Functions Atmospheric cycles
Some of the nutrients occur as atmospheric gas (Nitrogen and Carbon cycles)
Functions of Sedimentary cycles
Moves nutrients from land to sea floor and back to land by geological uplifting. (Phosphorus cycle)
Why are other species important to us?
1. We depend on them for survival, i.e. decomposing, producing oxygen, and medicines.
2. They are a part of us and our necessary ecosystem
How do organisms live in vent communities where no light is present?
Openings in Earth (vents) provide heat and nutrients.