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48 Cards in this Set

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Function of
Gray Matter
to route sensory or motor stimulus to interneurons of the CNS in order to create a response to the stimulus through chemical synapse activity.
Function of
White Matter
tissue through which messages pass between different area of gray matter within the nervous system
what are the three maters
Pia Mater
Arachnoid Mater
Dura Mater
Function of
Pia Mater
delicate innermost layer of the meninges - the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord.
Function of
Arachnoid Mater
interposed between the two other meninges, the more superficial dura mater and the deeper pia mater, and is separated from the pia mater by the subarachnoid space.
What is
Dura Mater
The tough and inflexible outermost of the three layers of the meninges
Function of
Dorsal Root Ganglion
cell bodies of sensory neurons found in an englarged area of the dorsal root
Ventral Root Ganglion
The part of a spinal nerve, consisting of motor fibers, that arises from the anterior section of the spinal cord
function of
Posterior gray horns
contains interneurons and sensory fibers that enter the cord from the body periphery via the dorsal root
function of
Anterior Gray Horns
mainly contain cell bodies of motor neurons of the somatic nervous system (voluntary system)
define/function
Anterior Median Fissure
a longitudinal furrow along the midline of the anterior aspect of the spinal cord and medulla oblongata.
define/function
Posterior Median Sulcus
shallower, narrow furrow on the posterior side of spinal cord
name the 4 plexi
1) Cervical Plexus (C1 - C5)
2) Brachial Plexus (C5 - T1)
3) Lumbar Plexus (L1 - L4)
4) Sacral Plexus (L4 - S4)
Nerve: Superior root of
ansa cervicalis
C1 - infrahyoid and geniohyoid muscles of neck
Nerve: Lesser occipital
C2 - Skin of scalp posterior and superior to ear
Nerve: Great Auricular
C2 - C3: Skin Anterior, inferior, and over ear and over parotid glands
Nerve: Transverse cervical
C2 - C3: Skin over anterior aspect of neck
Nerve: Supraciavicular
C3 - C4: Skin over superior portion of chest and shoulder
Nerve: Inferior Root
C2 - C3:Infrahoid muscles of neck
Nerve: Phrenic
C3 - C5: Diaphragm
Nerve: Segmental Branches
C1 - C5: prevertebral (deep) muscles of neck, levator scapulae and middle scalene muscles
Cervical plexus consists of (5)
Lesser occipital nerve
Ansa Cervicalis
Transverse cervical nerve
supraciavicular nerve
Phrenic nerve
Brachial plexus consists of (6)
Musculocutaneous nerve
axillary nerve
median nerve
radial nerve
ulnar nerve
Lumbar plexus consists of (6)
Liohypogastric nerve
lioinguinal nerve
genitofemoral nerve
lateral femoral cutaneous nerve
femoral nerve
obturator nerve
Sacral plexus consists of (6)
superior gluteal nerve
inferior gluteal nerve
sciatic nerve: common fibular nerve
sciatic nerve: tibial nerve
posterior cutaneous nerve of thigh
pudendal nerve
how many pairs of in each, cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, and coccygeal nerves
Cervical - 6 pairs
Thoracic - 12 pairs
Lumbar - 5 pairs
Sacral - 5 pairs
Coccygeal - 1 pair
5 parts of the reflex arc.
1) receptor
2) sensory neuron
3) integration center
4) motor neuron
5) effector
Receptor in the reflex arc is the -
site of stimulus action
Sensory neuron in the reflex arc -
transmits afferent impulses to the CNS
Inegration center in the reflex arc -
consists of one or more synapses in the CNS
Motor neuron in the reflex arc -
conducts efferent impulses from the integration center to an effector organ
Effector in the reflex arc is the -
muscle fibers or glands, responds to efferent impulses characteristically
Biological application of
stretch reflex
important postural reflexes, normally acting to maintain posture, balance and locomotion.
Medical application of Stretch reflex
hypoactive or absent in cases of peripheral nerve damage or ventral horn disease and hyperactive in corticospinal tract lesion.
When are Stretch Reflex absent?
deep sedation and comas
examples of stretch relfex
Patellar reflex - (knee-jerk reflex)
name the 12 cranial nerves (in order)
1) olfactory
2) optic
3) oculomotor
4) trochlear
5) trigeminal
6) abducents
7) facial
8) vestibulocochlear
9) glossopharyngeal
10) vegus
11) accessory
12) hypoglossal
which nerve is the
TRIGEMINAL and what does it function?
5 - sensing facial touch, pain and temperature, as well as controlling muscles used for chewing
which nerve is the TROCHLEAR nad what does it function?
4 - superior oblique muscle of eyeball)
which nerve is the OLFACTORY and what does it function?
1 - smell
which nerve is the OPTIC and what does it function?
2 - sight
which nerve is the OCULOMOTOR and what does it function?
3 - superior oblique movement of eyeball
which nerve is the ABDUCENS and what does it function?
6 - contract the lateral rectus which results in abduction of the eye
which nerve is the FACIAL and what does it function?
7 - face
which nerve is the VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR and what does it function?
8 - equilibrium and of hearing
which nerve is the GLOSSOPHARYNGEAL and what does it function?
9 - supply the tongue, soft palate, pharynx, and parotid gland.
which nerve is the VAGUS and what does it function?
10 - glands, digestion, heart rate
which nerve is the ACCESSORY and what does it function?
11 -