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37 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Gray Matter
contains neuron cell bodies, unmyelinated axons & dendrites
White Matter
covers gray matter. anterior, lateral and posterior white columns contain axons that form ascending and descending tracts
Three Maters
Dura mater: dense irregular CT
Arachnoid Mater: spider web of collagen fibers
Pia Mater: thin layer covers BV; denticulate ligaments hold it in place
Dorsal Root Ganglion
contains cell bodies of sensory nerves. Dorsal or posterior root is incoming sensory fibers
Ventral Root:
is outgoing motor fibers
four plexi, function and one nerve from each - and what it innervates
Cervical plexuses (C1-C5): C3-C5, phrenic - the diaphragm
Brachial plexuses (C5-C8, and Tq):C8, ulnar - muscular branches, flexor muscles in anterior forearm
lumbar plexuses (L1-L4):L2-L4, Femoral - inguinal ligaments to innervate the anterior thigh muscles
Sacral plexuses (L4-S4): L4,L5, S1-S3, Sciatic nerve -
5 parts of the ARC
Receptor - stimulated area
Sensory neuron - axon conducts impulses from receptor
Integrating center - one or more relay impulses
Motor neuron: axon conducts impulses to effector
Effector - muscle or gland that responds
Stretch, Peteller reflex
Somatic Spinal Reflex,monosynaptic, ipsilateral reflex arc - prevents injury from over stretching because muscle contracts when it is stretched
Withdrawal reflex
polysynaptic reflex - step on tack, more than one muscle activated to lift foot off of tack
Which cranial nerves arise from Medulla
VIII (8): Vestibulocochlear - hearing, balance
IX (9): Glossoopharyngeal - swallowing, secrets patotid gland
X (10): Vagus - cardiac muscle, smooth muscle of viscera, digestion
XI (11): Spinal Accessory - throat and soft palat
XII (12): Hypoglossal - muscles of tongue, speech and swallowing
Which cranial nerves enervate the Pons?
V (5)-Trigeminal Nerve -chewing, and touch, pain and temperature receptos of face
VI (6(-Abducens Nerve - Lateral rectus eye muscle
VII (7)-Facial Nerve-facial muscles, taste buds on anterior 2/3s of tongue
Which cranial nerves enervate the Midbrain?
III (3)-Oculomotor Nerve- raises eyelid, constriction of pupil
IV (4)-Trochlear Nerve- Superior oblique eye muscle
Which cranial nerve is used for smell?
I (1)- olfactory nerve
Which cranial nerve is used for sight?
II (2)- optic nerve
Falx Cerebri
Dlarger of the two folds of dura mater separating the hemispheres of the brain that lies between the cerebral hemispheres and contains the sagittal sinuses
enlarged anterior or upper part of the brain;
Parietal Lobe
contains an area concerned with bodily sensations
Occipital Lobe
visual areas
Temporal Lobe
sensory area associated with the organ of hearing
convoluted ridge between anatomical grooves
shallow furrow on the surface of the brain separating adjacent convolutions
longitudinal fissure
deep groove that divides the cerebrum into right and left hemispheres
Central Sulcus
sulcus separating the frontal lobe of the cerebral cortex from the parietal lobe
Corpus Callosum
great band of commissural fibers uniting the cerebral hemispheres
body of nerve fibers lying beneath the corpus callosum with which they are continuous posteriorly and serving to integrate the hippocampus with other parts of the brain
dorsal segment of the diencephalon containing the habenula and the pineal gland
mass of nuclei in each lateral wall of the third ventricle and serves to relay impulses and especially sensory impulses to and from the cerebral cortex
basal part of the diencephalon that lies beneath the thalamus on each side, forms the floor of the third ventricle, and includes vital autonomic regulatory centers
large dorsally projecting part of the brain concerned especially with the coordination of muscles and the maintenance of bodily equilibrium
corpora quadrigemina
two pairs of colliculi on the dorsal surface of the midbrain composed of white matter externally and gray matter within, the superior pair containing correlation centers for optic reflexes and the inferior pair containing correlation centers for auditory reflex
middle division of the three primary divisions of the developing vertebrate brain or the corresponding part of the adult brain that includes a ventral part containing the cerebral peduncles and a dorsal tectum containing the corpora quadrigemina and that surrounds the aqueduct of Sylvius connecting the third and fourth ventricles
associated with most of the cranial nerves, major fiber tracts and decussations that link spinal with higher centers, and various centers mediating the control of involuntary vital functions (as respiration)
pneumotaxic and apneustic areas help control breathing, cranial nerves 5-7
Caudate nucleus
one of the four basal ganglia in each cerebral hemisphere that comprises a mass of gray matter in the corpus striatum, forms part of the floor of the lateral ventricle,
7 or the major organs we are studying for the endocrine system?
pituitary (antior and posterior)
gonads (male and female)
chemical components of hormones?
mostly amino acids
What do eicosanoids do?
target primarily localized cells, not as wide ranging in the body as others