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97 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
cell without distinct organelles
prokaryote genetic material located here
type of cell with a cytoskeleton
network of proteins that regulate cell shape, mobility and intracellular movement
type of cell with plasma membrane
eukaryotes and prokaryotes
surrounds plant and animal cells, composed of a lipid bilayer embedded with proteins
plasma membrane
only in plants, made of cellulose
cell wall
delineates the nucleus
nuclear envelope
DNA in nucleus is stored as this
site of RNA synthesis
structure in nucleus, site of ribosome assembly
RNA/protein complexes needed for protein translation
cellular respiration and ATP synthesis are located here
proteins and other molecules required for light absorption and the fixation of carbon to carbon dioxide are located here
includes prominent organelles common to both animal and plant cells like the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the Golgi complex
endomembrane system
major site of lipid synthesis and drug detoxification
smooth ER
rough ER has this on it
site of protein synthesis
rough ER
organelle filled with digestive enzymes for degradation of macromolecules
organelle filled with enzymes that carry out oxidation reactions
lysosomes and peroxisomes found in
animal cells
storage compartment and degredation organelle
vacuoles found in
plant cells
network of microfilaments that runs throughout the cytoplasm
three types of microfilaments
microtubules, actin filaments, intermediate filaments
In the cytoplasm, they are responsible for cell motility (e.g. they drive the movement of a sperm tail) and movement of vesicles and organelles within the cell.
In the nucleus, they are responsible for the separation of chromosomes during cell division (i.e. the spindle fiber is composed of this)
used for several processes, including cell crawling and cell division
actin filaments
In muscle cells, these filaments are part of the molecular mechanism of muscle contractions.
actin filaments
found in animal cells and they are important for providing support and strength to the cell
intermediate filaments
Different types of cells can sometimes be isolated from a tissue and then cultured in an appropriate medium
primary cell culture
disadvantages to primary cell culture
cells are not in natural environment and thus may act abnomally; cells will not survive indefinately; cells hard to maintain in the culture
alternative to primary cell culture
transformed cell lines
immortal and can grow indefinately
transformed cell lines
cells to study that come from tumors
transformed cell lines
advantages of transformed cell lines
Two features of tumor cells are their rapid proliferation and the absence of normal regulation of growth, including signals that trigger a cell's demise.
similar in sequence because of a common evolutionary origin
the study of cellular structures by direct visualization through microscopy
three common types of microscopy
light, flourescence, and electron microscopy
uses white light to illuminate the specimen, and can achieve magnifications of a thousand-fold.
light microscopy
fluorescent dye is added to a specimen. light of a particular wavelength is added, and only a certain wavelenght, that of the dye, bounces back, and thus only the stained portion of the cell is visible
fluorescence microscopy
protein complexes circulating in the blood, which normally recognize and bind to specific macromolecules that are recognized as being foreign.
a type of fluorescence microscopy that uses a powerful laser to illuminate a sample and take optical sections through the specimen
confocal microscopy
captures the electrons that have been transmitted through a very thin section of the sample, which has usually been stained with an electron-dense dye to enhance contrast
transmission electron microscopy
a procedure used to visualize the three-dimensional structure of a sample by coating sample with a heavy metal, then a beam of electrons is focused on the sample
scanning electron microscopy
high resolution microscopy, shows only the outside of the cell
scanning electron microscopy
high resolution microscopy, shows the inside of the cell
Transmission electron microscopy
cells are disrupted and subjected to centrifugation to separate different components of the cell
subcellular fractionation
a procedure in which the disrupted and homogenized cells (cell homogenate) are subjected to centrifugal force, and organelles are separated based on their size and density
solution remaining after centrifugation
the cell homogenate is subjected to a series of sequential centrifugations at ever-increasing speeds
differential centrifugation
the cell homogenate is layered over a solution of differing densities of some solute (usually sucrose), the bottom has a higher density than top. when seperating, solution seperates into bands
density gradient centrifugation
type of microfilament responsible for the seperation of chromosomes
the four macromolecues
proteins, nucleic acids, polysaccharides, and lipids
Proteins are composed of
chains of amino acids
nucleic acids are composed of
chains of nucleotides
polysaccharides are composed of
chains of simple sugars
lipids are not macromolecules but are considered to be anyways. explain
lipids are not composed of repeating subunits, but still have a large molecular weight and are important
most abundant and diverse macromolecule
facilitate practically every chemical reaction that occurs in a cell, as well as facilitate the transport of many small molecules in and out of the cell
relay and receive messages between cells, and trigger changes in a cell in response to these signals
act as motors and provide the force to move a cell, as well as move components within a cell
large molecules made up of repeating units
polymers are repeating ___
monomers of proteins are:
amino acids
basic structure of a protein:
a central carbon (referred to as an alpha carbon), an amino group (NH3+), a carboxyl group (COO-) and an R-group (also termed a side chain).
defines the different properties of amino acids
chemical compounds with the same molecular formulas but differing in arrangement such that they are mirror images of each other
which stereoisomer of amino acids, L or P, makes up proteins?
L-amino acids
classifications for amino acids, determined by the R-group
polar, nonpolar, or charged
polymer of amino acids
links the carboxyl group of the first amino acid to the amino group of the second amino acid; is covalent
peptide bond
peptide bond formation is this kind of reaction in which water is released
condensation reaction
begining of polypeptide
amino terminus (N-terminus)
end of polypeptide
carboxyl terminus (C-terminus)
The amino acids in the polypeptide chain are sometimes referred to as
a peptide bond is a covalent bond between the
carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of a second amino acid
The conformation of a protein is dictated by
the amino acid sequence via chemical interactions between the peptide bonds, the side chains and the environment
specific, stable, three-dimensional shapes of proteins
if the amino acid sequence is correct but the conformation is altered, then
most proteins will not be active
Primary structure of amino acids refers to
the sequence of amino acids.
Secondary structures of amino acids refers to
local interactions
Quaternary structure of amino acids refers to
the assembly of multiple polypeptide subunits in a multimeric (comprised of two or more polypeptides) protein
tertiary structures of amino acids refers to
global interactions
comprised of two or more polypeptides
two common secondary structures of proteins
the alpha helix (α helix) and the beta sheet (β sheet)
secondary structures of proteins are formed by
interactions between the peptide bonds rather than the side chains of the amino acids; specifically, hydrogen bonds between the imino group (NH) of one peptide bond and the carbonyl group (CO) of a nearby peptide bond.
a covalent bond formed between the sulfhydryl (SH) groups of two cysteine residues
disulfide bond
a non-covalent bond formed between oppositely charged ions
ionic bond
How do the hydrogen bonds used in generating the secondary and tertiary structures of polypeptides differ?
Secondary structure is determined by hydrogen bonding between the carbonyl and imino groups of the peptide bonds of adjacent amino acids, whereas tertiary structure is determined by hydrogen bonding between the side chains of distant amino acids.
Immunoglobins are made up of several polypeptides. In an experiment in which the cysteines of the immunoglobulin polypeptides were changed to alanine, the stability of the polypeptide complex was reduced. Which of the following statements is the most feasible explanation of this observation?
The change from cysteine to alanine results in fewer disulfide bonds, and the quaternary structure of the immunoglobulin is disrupted due to weakened interactions between the polypeptide bonds.
alteration of protein conformation is referred to as
Three common methods of protein denaturation involve
heat, extreme pH and reducing agents
A peptide bond is formed between two amino acids via a
covalent bond between their amino and carboxyl groups
An alpha helix is an example of the _____________ of a protein, which is formed by _________.
secondary structure / hydrogen bonds between the peptide bonds of adjacent amino acids
Quaternary structure refers to the
overall shape of a protein composed of multiple polypeptides
Extremes in temperature and/or pH can decrease the activity of a protein. This occurs because these conditions alter its conformation by __________.
disrupting the non-covalent interactions that maintain the tertiary and quaternary structure of the protein