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75 Cards in this Set

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Organ level
two or more tissues must work together, ex.-"bone" in humans is an organ because it has two or more tissues, small intestine also.
"parenchyma of the heart"
cardiac muscle tissue
Integumentary system
Main part: skin, outer covering of the organism, accessory organs= hair, nails, glands in the skin (oil, sweat glands)
Skeletal system
206 bones, cartilages, hyaline cartilage, joins (articulations)<- where to bones come together, held by ligaments
Muscular system
Skeletal muscles (and tissues), primary histology of system is the skeletal muscle. All skeletal voluntary muscles of the body.
Circulatory system
(Cardiovascular and lymphatic systems) heart, blood vessels, lymph vessels, lymph, lymph nodes
Respitory system
Lungs, trachea, windpipe, etc.
Digestive system
GI tract, pancreas
Endocrine gland
Pituitary, adrenal glands, secretory products "dumped" in blood (ie: hormones).
Exocrine system
Ex: Salivary glands, duct system for transporting secretory products to a desired destination.
Two regulatory systems
Endocrine and nervous systems
Insulin
Produced by pancreas-endocrine system of the pancreas
Nervous system
Brain, spinal cord (>) CNS-Central nervous system
Gasterentology
study of the digestive system
Obstetrician
Care of women during pregnancy, childbirth, and period following delivery. ie: c-sections
Gynecologist
Female reproductive system
Membrane transport
all cells have a cell membrane; Diffusion: "downhill system", Facilitated: Material is moving from an area of ^ concentration to an area of low concentration.
Osmosis
Diffusion of a very specific compound or molecular substance. Net diffusion of water accress the semi-permeable membrane.
Universal solvent
Water
Osmotic pressure
Pressure from osmosis
Tonicity
(Hypertonic, hypo', iso') Hyper-lot of solute, hypo-low solute, iso-no osmosis occuring. EX: .9NaCl is an isotonic solution, while seawater is hypertonic to cells.
Dialysis
Separation of large molecules from small molecules by diffusion accross the semi permeable membrane.
Filtration
Does require a pressure differential on both sides of the membrane
Capillary beds
Small blood vessels-nutrient exchange for water; requires pressure differential (BP)
Two filtration systems
Capillary beds, kidneys
Bulk flow
Lot of solutes moving in the same direction with the same amount of driving force
Active transport
ATP, enzymatic activity required, material going from a low concentration to a high concentration (requires energy)
Uphill/downhill systems
Downhill system requires no energy, while uphill system requires energy
Primary transport
NA+/K+ pump, high concentration - energy from ATP
Secondary transport
kenetic energy from primary transport -> <- occurs at the same time
Endocytosis
Into the cell - large molecular substances
Phagocytosis
"Cell eating" - the engulfing and ingestion of bacteria or other foreign bodies by phagocytes.
Pinocytosis
"Cell drinking"-Introduction of fluids into a cell by invagination of the cell membrane, followed by formation of vesicles within the cells.
Exocytosis
Out of the cell-large molecular substances- secretory cells/vesicles use these methods
Transcytosis
Both endo/exo cytosis (both into and out of the cell)
Cellular reception
Dendrites (Without capsule called "naked dendrites")m sensory nuerons, may/may not be enclosed in capsule of epithelial/connective tissues
Skin
Large organ (largest in human body), consists of epithelial/connective tissue, 2 square meters, .4-4mm thick.
Skin
Top - epidermous
Middle - dermis
Bottom - hypodermis
Cutaneous sensations
Tactile - touch
Thermal - heat energy
Pain - nocireceptors(?)
Receptor mediated endocytosis
Need receptor (protein) in the membrane to react to whatever is going to come into a vell/targeted by a specific cell
Tactile sensations (5)
1) Crude/descriminative touch
2) Pressure
3) Vibration
4) Itch
5) Tickle
Tactile sensation - Crude/descriminative touch
Crude - detects something, texture and shape not determined
Descriminative - Detects precise location - Meissmers carpusles - Merkel cells required
Tactile sensation - pressure
Equip needed: Percinean carpusles (encapsulated) - over wide area, sustained for a period of time before detected.
Tactile sensation - Vibration
Meissner and Percinean - free nerve endings that register itch and tickle.
Skoin (dual organ)
Ectoderm (epithelial), Mesoderm (connective)

(tissues)
Functions of integumentary system
Protection, (bacteria, microbes, excessive heat loss, water balance, loss of materials), excretion, not involved with nutrition, storage area for blood (blood resevoirs), receiving external stimuli, monitoring environment, synethesis of Vitamin D
Calcitriol
Active form of Vitamin D, producted by liver/kidneys
Skin - two types of connective tissue
1) aerolar-papillary region of the dermis
2) dense, irregular connective tissue
Ectoderm/Mesoderm
Outer/inner
Hypodermis
Also called "subcutaneous" and "superficial fascia" - between the skin and the muscles
Thick skin
Palms, heels, palmar surface of the digits, hairless
Epidermis
Thin compared to the dermis, mostly consists of stratified squamous epithelial tissue
Layers of the epidermous
(5)
1) Deepest - layer stratum basale (or germinativum) - live cells
2) Spinosium
3) Granulosum
4) Lucidum
5) Top layer - corneum - dead cells
Keratinocytes
Cells that produce heratene-cells loaded with Karotene
Melanocytes
Produces melanin-dark pigment
Longerhons cells
Involved with immunity, sensative to solar radiation
Merkel cells
Discriminative touch - deepest layer of the epidermis
Pigments
Substance (molecular) that generates colour
Most significant pigment in humans
Melanin and red blood cells (hemoglobin)
Thick skin
Dermis-papillary region, aerolar, well pronounced dermal papilla, connective - areolar connective tissue - vascular (blood vessels) - thermal regulation, epidermal ridges
Epidermal ridges
Produce fingerprints, developed at about 3 months of fetal development, only identical twins have the same fingerprints.
Order of energy usage
1) Carbohydrates/glucose
2) Lipids/fats
3) Protein
Hypodermis
Loose connective tissue
-> panniculus adiposis (major part) - lot of hypodermis, long term energy storage, major fat storage area.
Histology of hypodermis
Loose connective tissue with a lot of adiposis tissue
Microphages
Large phagocyctes (cell eaters) - eats disease causing cells via phagocytes
Plasma cells
produce antibodies - major part of the immune system
Thin skin (hairy skin)
Stratum lucidum is absent, all parts of the body except palms, spinosumond(?) coreneum - quite thin
Hair
An epidermal derivative - especially the stratum basale.
2 main parts...
1) Shaft - above the skin
2) Root - penetrates into the dermis
Hair follicles that surround the root of the hair
1) External root sheath(downward growth of epidermis, surrounds root of hair)
2) Internal root sheath
*Base of hair follicle is the bulb - contains papillae of hair - nipple like projection ; inside papillae is vascularized (live tissue) that accounts for hair growth, needs blood, which provides nutrition for hair growth.
Matrix cells
Cell reproduction, stratum basale gives rise to the matrix
Biological growth
1) increase in cell number
2) increase cell size
Statistics related to hair
Scalp-lasts 2-6 years
Eyelashes-lasts 3-5 months
Hairloss(adult scalp)(70-100 QD)
Functions of hair
Protection (from solar radiation), hair to protect insects from ear, hair in nose from keeping dust/follicles out of upper respitory system, eyelashes protect the eyes "protection protection!" Mate selection?
Sebaceous glands
Hair is associated (each hair is a sebaceous gland/known as oil glands) can have hairless parts of the body that have sebaceous glands.
Sevum
Secretion from sebaceous glands, mixture of fats (lipids), cholesterol, proteins, and inorganic salts