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27 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
organism that lives on or in another organism and causes some harm
the other organism
collection of microbes normally found associated with a host
Normal Flora
disease causing parasite
ability of a parasite to cause damage to the host
Infections often begin at _______________. Epithelial cells that are coated with a _________ solution called _______. It serves to help wash away any microbes that hapen to land of these surfaces but some microbes have special receptors that specifically bind to components of the epithelial cells and gain entry into the cell
Mucous membranes; Glycoprotein; mucus
4 reasons why skin is not a good place for growth of bacteria:
1) pH=4.6 (organic acids)
2) *Low moisture content
3) High salt
4) Rapidly changing conditions - moist to dry, ect.
Microorganisms are associated with __________ of the skin, primarily with the _____________ and the _____________.
Sweat glands; sweat ducts; hair follicles
2 types of sweat glands:
1) Eccrine glands (main sweat gland)
2) Apocrine gland (underarms, genital regions)
Associated with hair follicles is this gland: __________. It secretes ________, a mixture of fatty acids, glycerids, waxes, cholesterol and contains debris of dead fat cells. This gland everywhere except palms and soles.
Sebaceous glands; sebum
2 types of skin flora: __________, organisms that don't grow but just get there as contaminants; _____________, able to survive and grow on skin
Transients; Residents
Factors that affect skin normal flora in an individual:
1) Weather-heat and humidity
2) Age
3) Hospitalization
4) Personal hygiene
caused by mixture of baceria and polymers that they secrete on teeth; predominant organism is _____________, anaerobic bacteria that produces lactic acid from sugars
Dental plaque; Fusobacterium
2 species responsible for dental carries:
1) Strep. mutans
2) Strep. sobrinus
- both of these produce lactic acid by fermenting sugar
Gastrointestinal tract consists of:
Stomach, small intestine, large intestine
Upper respiratory tract:
Throat, nasal passages, nasopharynx
1) Strep throat, flesh eating bacterium
2) Staph intections, boils
3) diptheria
4) bacterial pneumonia
1) Strep. pyrogenes
2) S.aureus
3) Corynebacterium diptheria
4) Strep. pneumoniae
Lower respiratory tract:
Trachea, bronchi, lungs
This is caused by paralysis of ciliary action by nicotine and oher products of tobacco smoking; causes accumulation of mucus, particles and bacteria
"Smoker's cough"
the entry of pathogens usually occur because of a break in the _____. There are 6 steps that happen from this:
1) Exposure
2) Adherence
3) Invasion
4) Colonization and Growth
5) Toxicity, further invasion, tissue damage
6) Disease
Specific adherence consists of ________ and _____ specifity. The main reason for this is the presence of ___________ and _________ in many bacteria. Type 1 of this found in enterics bind to ________ residues present in the glycoproteins on the cell surface of host cells.
Tissue, Host; glycocalix, fimbriae; mannose
E.coli normally found in _______. It produces proteins called ________ that allows organisms to attach to mucosa of ________. _____________ strains of E.coli have these proteins and produce a toxin that cause disease.
Colon; CFA (Colonization Factor Antigen); small intestine; Enteropathogenic
Animal proteins that bind iron so tightly that only certain bacteria that have even stronger iron binding compounds (____________) that obtain iron for growth. __________ allows strains that have a certain plasmid remove iron from host transferrin
Transferrin, Lactoferrin; Siderophores; Aerobactin
Infection that overflows into blood called ____________. If bacteria continues to grow and cause infection in blood this type of ___________ is called a ____________ (might happen during dental work)
Bacteremia; systemic infection; Septicemia
________ is a quantitative term that refers to ability of an organism to cause disease. The _______ is a measure of it.
Virulence; LD50 (Lethal Dose required to kill 50% of a populaiton of animals-usually mice.)
6 enzymes that help bacteria invade the host and cause disease:
1) breaks down hyaluronic acid
2) breaks down collen in tissues
3) dissolves clots
4) promotes fibrin clotting
5) produces proteins by some pathogens that lyse cells
6) lyse white blod cells
1) Hyaluronidase (Strep, Staph, Clostridia)
2) Collagenase (C.perfringens)
3) Streptokinase (Strep)
4) Coagulase (S.aureus)
5) Hemolysins
6) Leukocidins
- protein toxins produced and released outside of cell.
- composed of _______, so many are heat-sensitive
Exotoxins; protein