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19 Cards in this Set

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definition of Microbiology
study of organisms too small to be seen by the naked or unaided eye. Includes the roles of microorganisms in causing disease, changes they make in the environment and products that they generate
What are 2 problems with the definition of microbiology?
1. organisms refer only to living cells. In addtion to the study of microorganisms, we also study infectious agents such as viruses, prions, and viroids that are not considered to be living. We refer to these non-living agents as particles
What are some examples of particles?
viruses, prions, and viroids
What are the 5 kingdoms that the living world is divided into?
Animal, Plants, Protozoans, Fungi - all made of the Eukaryotic cells and the Progaytoes (Monera) - consisting of Prokaryotic cells - includes bacteria and cyanobacter (blue-green algae) and archaea.
Archaea
not known to cause human disease
-Some live in extreme salt concentrations and extreme temperatures.
-some archaea can produce methane gas
define: bacteriology
(study of bacteria) is a huge part of microbiology but we study other groups as well. The field to study includes:
1. Protozoa (Eukaryotic cells) - usually unicellular
2. Algae (Eukaryotic cells) - some are macroscopic
3. Fungi (Eukaryotic cells) - some are macroscopic - includes yeast and molds
4. Bacteria (Prokaryotic cells) and cyanobacteria (also known as the blue-green algae Prokaryotic cells)
Examples of free-living cells
Protozoa, Algae, Fungi, and Bacteria

-they metabolize on their own outside of host cells
obligate intracellular parasites
can only function when present inside of host cells
Rickettsia
(a type of bacteria and therefore Prokaryotic cells)
-These organisms have leaky membranes and must exist inside of host cells.
An example of a rickettsial organism is Rickettsia rickettsii.
etiological agent:
Rickettsia rickettsii
(cause of disease) of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
define: Binomial Nomenclature
this means we name a species we use two words.
-The first word is the Genus (always capitalized)
-The second word is called the species epithet (always in low erase)
-By convention the name is italicized or underlined
Chlamydia
(a type of bacteria and therefore Prokaryotice cells) these organisms lack enzymes and therefore some of the metabolic machinery they need
-An example of chlamydial organism is Chlamydia trachoma tis. This is the etiological agent of NGU or nongonococcal urethritis, a common venereal disease.
define: venereal disease
directly transmitted from one mucous membrane to another
Viruses
(not cells, not living, a type of particle-simplest version consists of nucleic acid surrounded by a protein coat)
-Viruses can only replicate when inside a host cell.
- They are obligate intracellular parasites like Rickettsia and Chlymydia
- Don't use Binomial Nomenclature to name them
example: HIV
HIV
(Human Immunodificieny Virus) is an example of a virus
-HIV is the etiological agent of AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome)
-Historically names HTLV III (Human T-cell lymphotropic virus III) by American researchers and LAV (Lymphadenopathy associated virus) by French researchers.
Herpes simplex I
is the etiological agent for oral herpes.
Herpes simplex II causes genital herpes
Since HIV attacks the immune system those with AIDS suffer secondary or opportunistic infections such as
Pneumocystic pneumonia this is cause (etiological agent) by a protozoan called Pneymocystis carinii (also Pneumocystis jirovecii [eukaryotic cell])
-Some believe this organism is a fungus - we will refer to it as a protozoan
Prions
(not cells, not living, no nucleic acid, a type of particle) infectious naked pieces of protein.
• obligate intracellular parasites
• Prions are responsible for causing BSE or Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy also called Mad Cow disease
Viroids
(not cells, not living, a type of particle)
• naked pieces of RNA
• Associated mostly with plant pathology (disease)