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78 Cards in this Set

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If an atom loses an electron, it becomes a(n):
cation
A molecule that tends to form hydration spheres around it is _____.
hydrophilic
A saturated fatty acid has a ___ hydrocarbon chain, and is _____ at room temperature.
A saturated fatty acid has a straight hydrocarbon chain, and is solid at room temperature.
True/False: The primary structure of a protein is determined by its hydrogen bonds
False
True/False: Water molecules are held to other water molecules by polar covalent bonds
False
True/False: A solution with a pH of 9 would have a higher free H+ concentration than a solution with a pH of 6.
False
True/False: When the body experiences a drop in blood calcium levels, the body secretes a hormone that causes the bone to break down (resulting in the release of calcium into the blood stream). This is an example of positive feedback.
False
True/False: Lipids are examples of hydrophobic molecules.
True
True/False: Enzymes can only catalyze a reaction one time before being degraded by lysosomes.
False
A chemical bond formed by the transfer of electrons is called a(n):
ionic bond
Three fatty acids attach to a glycerol molecule to form a triglyceride in a process called _____.
dehydration synthesis
The plasma membrane is composed of _____
phospholipids, proteins, cholesterol
Where is energy stored in an ATP molecule?
phosphate bonds
A substrate binds to an enzyme at its ____.
active site
Microvilli are abundant on:
cells along the small intestine/digestive tract
Which of the following is NOT a function of a protein:
a. support
b. metabolism regulation
c. immune system defenses (antibodies)
d. movement
e. storage of genetic information
e. storage of genetic information
The three base sequence on the mRNA molecule that recognizes and binds to the three base sequence on the tRNA molecule is the:
codon
During _____, an anticodon binds to a codon in the _____.
During translation, an anticodon binds to a codon in the cytosol.
Monosaccharides are
a. polar
b. nonpolar
c. amphipathic
a. polar
Compare/Contrast the functions of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum versus the functions of the rough endoplasmic reticulum
smooth ER
lipid and carbohydrate synthesis
rough ER
newly synthesized proteins are chemically modified & packaged for export to Golgi apparatus
The presence of ___ chemical groups makes carbohydrates __.
The presence of hydroxyl chemical groups makes carbohydrates polar.
Each of the following statements concerning hydrogen bonds is true except one. Identify the exception.
a. Hydrogen bonds are strong attractive forces between hydrogen atoms and negatively charged atoms (e.g. oxygen)
b. Hydrogen bonds can occur within a single molecule
c. Hydrogen bonds can form between neighboring molecules
d. Hydrogen bonds are important forces for holding large molecules together
e. Hydrogen bonds are responsible for many of the unique properties of water
a. Hydrogen bonds are strong attractive forces between hydrogen atoms and negatively charged atoms (e.g. oxygen)
__ are molecules that contain primarily carbons and hydrogens linked together by non-polar covalent bonds.
Lipids
Explain why phospholipids are amphiphatic
Polar head due to phosphate group; non-polar tails due to fatty acids
T/F: Interstitial fluid is a component of extracellular fluid.
True
The function of ADH (anti-diuretic hormone) is to conserve water by decreasing urine output. According to the negative feedback mechanism, ADH will be secreted when the:
A) Body is running low in water
B) Body has an excess amount of water
C) Pituitary gland is extremely dry
D) Kidneys are not functioning properly
A) Body is running low in water
T/F: There are more organelles than cells in the body.
True
T/F: The lower the pH, the higher the hydrogen ion concentration.
True
T/F: Hydrolysis is an example of a catabolic reaction in which a large molecule is broken down into smaller molecules.
True
The ___ determines the extent of the error signal in a feedback loop, in order to initiate the appropriate response.
control center
A bond in which electrons are shared unequally occurs in which of the following compounds:
a) NaCl
b) oxygen
c) water
d) sucrose
e) steroid
c) water
12. Which of the following reactions represents a catabolic reaction?
a. A + B → C+ D
b. A+ B → AB
c. AB → A + B
d. C + D → AB
c. AB → A + B
T/F: If a molecule is polar it can pass through a cell membrane.
False
When an atom is electrically charged (positive or negative), it is known as a(n)__.
ion
During translation, ___ is synthesized in the ___.
Protein: cytoplasm
What strand of mRNA would be synthesized from the following strand of DNA: AATG?
UUAC
The portion of DNA that codes for a particular protein is called a ___.
gene
The hydrogen and oxygen atoms in a molecule of water are held together by a(n) _______ bond.
polar covalent
T/F: Thymine is a pyrimidine that binds adenine.
True
Name and describe three differences between the structure of DNA and RNA.
DNA: deoxyribose sugar, RNA: ribose sugar
DNA: ATCG, RNA: AUCG
DNA: double stranded, RNA typically single stranded
The sum of the thousands of chemical reactions that occur within the body is called ________.
metabolism
Chemical reactions that involve the production of a phosphate bond are called ________ reactions.
phosphorylation
During what type of reaction are electrons removed from the reactant?
oxidation
Which of the following is not one of the factors that affect the rate of reactions? A.height of the activation energy barrier b. temperature c. transition state d. reactant and prodcut concentration
transition state
Decreasing temperatures will ________ the frequency of collisions between molecules, thereby ________ the reaction rate.
decrease : decreasing
Enzymes act as ________ to increase reaction rate.
catalysts
a. increasing the concentration of reactants b. increasing the activation energy barrier c. increasing the temperature d. adding a catalyst e. adding an enzyme
increasing the activation energy barrier
Enzymes are what class of molecule?
proteins
How do enzymes increase the rate of chemical reactions?
bringing the substrates together to undergo collision
The greater the attractive forces between substrate and enzyme, that enzyme is said to have a higher ________ for the substrate.
affinity
An increase in the affinity of an enzyme for its substrate will increase the reaction rate.
TRUE
An increase in the concentration of enzyme will increase the reaction rate.
TRUE
During glycolysis, glucose is broken down, yielding what type of molecule?
2 pyruvate
Which of the following does NOT occur in mitochondria?
conversion of pyruvate to lactate
The final product of glycolysis under aerobic conditions is pyruvate. What happens to pyruvate under aerobic conditions?
Pyruvate enters the mitochondrial matrix where it is converted into acetyl CoA.
Where are the enzymes of glycolysis located within the cell?
cytosol
What is the final acceptor of electrons in the electron transport?
oxygen
Where is the electron transport chain?
inner mitochondrial membrane
ATP synthase is able to use the potential energy that originates from ________ to produce ATP.
the hydrogen gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane
Under anaerobic conditions, what is pyruvate converted to and where does this occur?
lactate in the cytosol
Pyruvate is converted to lactate in the cytosol under anaerobic conditions, but it is converted to acetyl CoA in the mitochondrial matrix under aerobic conditions.
TRUE
Which of the following molecules is NOT converted to glucose through the process of gluconeogenesis? A. lactate b. pyruvate c. amino acids d. glycerol e. fatty acids
fatty acids
What is glycogenolysis?
the breakdown of glycogen to glucose
Which of the following molecules is a substrate for gluconeogenesis?
amino acids and glycerol only
Glycogenolysis is an example of a catabolic reaction.
TRUE
Regulation of an enzyme through reversible binding of a modulator to a regulatory site on an enzyme is specifically called ________.
allosteric regulation
During aerobic respiration, __ is oxidized and __ is reduced to form __ and __.
Glucose; oxygen; carbon dioxide; water
True/False: After a triglyceride is broken down, fatty acids undergo beta oxidation to form multiple acetyl CoA molecules that can enter the Kreb’s Cycle to form ATP.
true
The movement of oxygen from a higher concentration in the lungs to a lower concentration in the blood stream is an example of:
simple diffusion
Two solutions are separated by a semipermeable membrane with the same properties as a cell membrane. Solution A is a 5 percent large globular protein solution and solution B is a 10 percent large globular protein solution. Under these circumstances, which of the following would most likely occur:
water will move from solution A to solution B
A red blood cells placed into a hypertonic solution will:
shrink
True/False: Unlike simple diffusion, facilitated diffusion requires ATP to undergo a conformational shape change within the membrane.
true
The breakdown of glucose into pyruvic acid is a(n) ____ process.
anaerobic
True/False: A modulator molecule binds to an enzyme at the regulatory site to change the shape or activity of that enzyme.
true
True/False: Glucose can be broken down to form ATP, fat (fatty acids), and amino acids.
true
What process(es) increase after you have eaten a high-carbohydrate meal (circle all that apply):
a. glycogenolysis
b. glycogenesis
c. gluconeogenesis
d. insulin release
e. glucagon release
b. glycogenesis and d. insulin release
The inside of a cell is more negative with respect to the outside of the cell. Explain WHY.
excess of anions on the inside of the cell; excess of cations on the outside of the cell
How would boiling an enzyme affect the activation energy of a chemical reaction?
Boiling an enzyme would increase the temperature of the enzyme which the enzyme functions best at 40 degrees Celsius which lowers the activation energy of a chemical reaction