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40 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is anatomy?
study of structures of the body
What is physiology?
study of the functions of anatomical structures
What are the central themes of physiology?
1. physiochemical basis of body function
2. structure-function relationships
3. cells are the basic living units
4. homeostasis
5. integration
What is homeostasis?
maintenance of a relatively stable internal environment
What are the smallest chemical units?
atoms
What are groups of atoms working together?
molecules
What is a group of molecules working together?
organelles
What is a group of organelles working together?
cells
What is a group of similar cells working together?
tissues
What is a group of different tissues working together?
organs
What is a group of organs working together?
organ systems
What is an individual?
organism
What are the 4 general categories of cells?
epithelial, connective, neurons, and muscle
What is the function of neurons?
• transmitting electrical signals
• control and regulate muscle contraction, gland secretion, sensory perception, thoughts, memory, emotions, etc.
Where are muscle cells located?
in the heart, internal organs or connecting bones
• under voluntary control (skeletal muscle) or involuntary control (cardiac muscle and smooth muscle)
What type of muscle cell is under voluntary contraction?
skeletal muscle
What type of muscle cells under involuntary control?
cardiac muscle and smooth muscle
What cells have the characteristic of a continuous sheet-like layer of cells with a thin, non-cellular underlying basement layer?
epithelial cells
Epithelial cells form barriers that:
1. separate body from external environment
2. line hollow organs
3. form glands
What is the primary function of connective tissues?
physical support or link structures together
Where are connective tissues located?
tendons, ligaments, bones, blood, and lymph
Most connective tissue cells are embedded in _____.
extracellular matrix
What is a noncellular meshwork of proteins & other large molecules?
extracellular matrix
The internal environment is separated from the external environment via layer of _____ tissue.
epithelial
The lumen of the respiratory system, gastrointestinal system, and urinary system are apart of the _____ environment
external
What is a lumen?
interior cavity of hollow organ or vessel
What percentage is your total body water?
60% of body weight
What is intracellular fluid?
inside cells
What is extracellular fluid?
outside cells
What is interstitial fluid?
outside of the blood, surrounds most cells
What is blood plasma?
non-cellular, fluid portion of blood
What is the extracellular fluid consisted of?
interstitial fluid and blood plasma
What is the plasma membrane?
separates ICF and ECF
What are the 7 variables of homeostasis?
1. body temperature
2. blood pressure
3. arterial Po₂
4. arterial Pco₂
5. pH
6. blood (glucose)
7. plasma osmolarity
Most physiological systems maintain homeostasis by _____.
negative feedback
physiological variable is regulated around a _____.
set point
In the negative feedback system, what receives the stimulus?
receptor
In the negative feedback system, what processes/integrates signal & sends information?
control center
In the negative feedback system, what carries out the instructions?
effector
What is the positive feedback system?
the response of the effector reinforces the stimulus